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Duplex Stainless Steel

Duplex Stainless Steel

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PRACTICAL GUIDELINES FORTHE FABRICATION OF DUPLEXSTAINLESS STEELS
Revised Edition
©
2001 International Molybdenum Association
 
2
The International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) has made every effort to ensure that the information presented is technically correct. However, IMOAdoes not represent or warrantthe accuracy of the information contained in this handbook or its suitability for any general or specific use. The reader is advised that the material contained herein is for informationpurposes only; it is not intended as a substitute for any person’s procedures, and should not be used or relied upon for any specific or general application without first obtainingcompetent advice. IMOA, its members, staff and consultants specifically disclaim any and all liability or responsibility of any kind for loss, damage, or injury resulting from the use of theinformation contained in this publication. ASTM’s international specifications were used predominantly in this publication; however, material specifications may vary among countries.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prepared by Technical Marketing Resources, Inc. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. (www.tmrstainless.com), Consultants to IMOA.
Front cover picture: Slitting of Duplex Stainless Steel (Source: Krupp Thyssen Nirosta)
Page number Page number 
1 .
Introduction
................................................................3
2 .
History of Duplex Stainless Steels
........................4
3 .
Chemical Composition and Role oAlloying Elements
......................................................63. 1Chemical Composition of Duplex Stainless Steels............ 63. 2 The Role of the Alloying Elements in Duplex Stainless Steels 6
4 .
Metallurgy of Duplex Stainless Steels
.................8
5 .
Corrosion Resistance
................................................105. 1Resistance to Acids........................................................... 105. 2Resistance to Caustics...................................................... 115. 3Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance......................... 115. 4Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance............................... 13
6 .
End User Specifications and Quality Control
146. 1Standard Testing Requirements......................................... 14
6. 1. 1Chemical Composition.......................................................
14
6. 1. 2Solution Annealing and Quenching....................................
15
6. 2Special Testing Requirements........................................... 15
6. 2. 1Tensile and Hardness Tests................................................
15
6. 2. 2Bend Tests..........................................................................
16
6. 2. 3Impact Testing and Metallographic Examination for  Intermetallic Phases...........................................................
16
6. 2. 4Phase Balance as Determined by Metallography o Magnetic Measurements.....................................................
17
6. 2. 5Corrosion Testing...............................................................
17
6. 2. 6Production Welding and Inspection....................................
18
7 .
Mechanical Properties
.............................................19
8
.Physical Properties
....................................................20
9 .
Cutting
..........................................................................219. 1Sawing.............................................................................. 219. 2Shearing........................................................................... 219. 3Punching.......................................................................... 219. 4Plasma and Laser Cutting................................................22
10.
Forming
........................................................................2210. 1Hot Forming.....................................................................22
10. 1. 1Solution Annealing.............................................................
2210. 2Warm Forming
...................................................................
2310. 3Cold Forming...................................................................2310. 4Press Forming................................................................... 2410. 5 Spinforming..................................................................... 25
11.
Machining Duplex Stainless Steels
......................2511. 1General Guidelines for Machining DuplexStainless Steels
..................................................................
2611. 2Turning and Facing
......................................
2611. 3Face Milling with Cemented Carbides..........2711. 4Twist Drilling with High Speed Steel Drills27
12.
Welding Duplex Stainless Steels
.......2812. 1General Welding Guidelines.........................28
12. 1. 1Differences Between Duplex and AusteniticStainless Steels.............................................
28
12. 1. 2Selection of Starting Material........................
28
12. 1. 3Cleaning Before Welding...............................
28
12. 1. 4Joint Design..................................................
28
12. 1. 5Preheating.....................................................
29
12. 1. 6Heat Input and Interpass Temperature.........
29
12. 1. 7Postweld Heat Treatment..............................
29
12. 1. 8Desired Phase Balance..................................
29
12. 1. 9Dissimilar Metal Welds.................................
3012. 2Welding Procedure Qualifications................. 3212. 3Welding Methods
...........................................
32
12. 3. 1Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG).......
32
12. 3. 2Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW/MIG)...........
34
12. 3. 3Flux Core Wire Arc Welding (FCW)...............
36
12. 3. 4Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
37
12. 3. 5Submerged Arc Welding (SAW).....................
38
12. 3. 6Electron Beam and Laser Welding.................
39
12. 3. 7Resistance Welding........................................
39
13.
Other Joining Techniques
...................3913. 1Joint Preparation.........................................3913. 2Adhesives..................................................... 3913. 3Soldering......................................................4013. 4Brazing........................................................40
14.
Post-Fabrication Clean-up
...................4114. 1Crayon Marks, Paint, Dirt, Oil.....................4114. 2Embedded Iron.............................................4114. 3Weld Spatter, Heat Tint, Flux, Slag,Arc Strikes....................................................42
Acknowledgments....................................................................
44
Suggested Additional Reading..................................................
44
References...............................................................................
45
Appendix 1. Duplex Stainless Steel Names,Trademarks & Associated Stainless Steel Producers
46
Appendix 2. Summary of ASTM Specifications ...........................
47
 
1.
INTRODUCTION
Duplex stainless steels are a family of gradescombining good corrosion resistance with highstrength and ease of fabrication. Their physicalproperties are between those of the austenitic andferritic stainless steels but tend to be closer tothose of the ferritics and to carbon steel. Thechloride pitting and crevice corrosion resistanceof the duplex stainless steels is a function of chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen content. Itmay be similar to that of Type 316 or range up tothat of the sea water stainless steels such as the6% Mo austenitics. All the duplex stainless steelshave chloride stress corrosion cracking resistancesignificantly greater than that of the 300-seriesaustenitics. They all provide significantly greater
strength than the austenitic grades while exhibiting
good ductility and toughness.There are many similarities in the fabrication of austenitic and duplex stainless steels but there areimportant differences. The high alloy content andthe high strength of the duplex grades requiresome changes in fabrication practice. Thisbrochure is for fabricators and for end users withfabrication responsibility. It presents, in a singlesource, practical information for the successful
fabrication of duplex stainless steels. This brochure
assumes the reader already has experience withthe fabrication of stainless steels; therefore, itprovides data comparing the properties andfabrication practices of duplex stainless steels tothose of the 300-series austenitic stainless steelsand to carbon steel.
The fabrication of duplex stainless steels isdifferent but not difficult.
3
Chemical ProcessingPlant Using 2205(Source: KruppThyssen Nirosta)

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