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Polynomial Series

Polynomial Series

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Published by Jacob Richey

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Published by: Jacob Richey on Aug 31, 2010
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08/31/2010

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Many thicker posts are to follow this one, but for now they remain on the brink of completion.This is really a revision of a previous post, (far far in the past), regarding two very simple (related)summation problems:Find the value of 
i
1
n
i
 p
in general (a function of 
n
given
p
), and find the polynomial series (as afunction of 
n
and
p
that sums to
n
 p
.The second problem is the more interesting and less practical, and I discovered it in my fifth post. Inoticed this series of series:
i
1
n
1
n
i
1
n
2
i
1
n
2
i
1
n
3
i
2
3
i
1
n
3
i
1
n
4
i
3
6
i
2
4
i
1
n
4
...Well aware that this was a non-trivial result, I attempted fruitlessly to nest these into a generaldouble-summation: however, I was only a high-school freshman, and hadn't yet discovered thebinomial theorem (my own personal discovery of the theorem came half a year later). In reality, thesummation is a very simple one, though I have no clue how I originally discovered it. We noticethat the polymomials are the expanded forms of 
i
1
 p
with the
i
p
term missing; we can write
i
1
n
i
 p
i
1
 p
n
 p
, which is clearly true since this sum telescopes: 
i
1
n
i
 p
i
1
 p
1
 p
0
 p
2
 p
1
 p
...
n
 p
n
1
 p
0
 p
1
 p
1
 p
2
 p
2
 p
...

n
1
 p
n
1
 p
n
 p
n
 p
 
 
 Using the binomial theorem, the nested sum I was looking for is
i
1
n
1
 p
pi
 p
1
1
n
 p
. So, for example, 17
2
1
3
5
...
33 or17
4
4
17
3
6
17
2
4
17
1
4
16
3
6
16
2
4
16
1
...
1
. Our second summation has a more direct method of derivation- though the definition is recursive,not explicit- and uses the same telescoping sum in a different manner. I am writing this post onlybecause half an hour ago I rediscovered an old note I wrote that uses said telescoping sum to con-struct the formula for the triangle numbers, claiming the method (which is actually quite clever) asmy own. (I may well have found it on the internet, but I can't remember.) Here was the example Igave:Note that
i
1
n

i
1
2
i
2
2
2
1
2
3
2
2
2
...

n
1
2
n
2
n
1
2
1
n
2
2
n
But, we also have that
i
1
n

i
1
2
i
2
i
1
n
2
i
1
n
2
i
1
n
i
, so that
n
2
2
n
n
2
i
1
n
i
, and solving we have
i
1
n
i
n
2
n
2
.Noticing that this method could be extended to find the value of the sum for any
 p
, a sum whosevalue has shown up in much of the series work I've been doing recently, I did just that:Let
S
n
,
 x
i
1
n
i
 x
 
2
 
Polynomial Series.nb

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