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Atestat Engleza 11 Sept 2001

Atestat Engleza 11 Sept 2001

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Published by: alina_scumpik on Jun 28, 2008
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MINISTERUL EDUCAŢIEI CERCETĂRII ŞI TINERETULUIProfesor coordonator : Realizator :POPA IULIANA CATANĂ ALINA
 
2008
 
Contents
 
 
Chapter I : The descriptions of World Trade Center
1.1Planning and construction …………………………………31.2The complex ……………………………………………….61.3Life of the World Trade Center ……………………………81.3.1. February 13, 1975 fire………………………………..91.3.2. Bombing of February 26,1993 ………………………91.3.3. Lease ………………………………………………...131.3.4. September 11, 2001 …………………………………14
Chapter II : The attacks of the 11
th
september 2001
2.1.The attacks………………………………………………..152.1.1.Fatalities……………………………………….172.1.2.Damage………………………………………..182.1.3.Survivors………………………………………182.2.Responsibility2.2.1.The hijackers…………………………………..192.2.2.Other potential hijackers………………………192.2.3.Osama bin Laden……………………………...202.2.4.Other al-Qaeda members……………………...212.2.5.Motive…………………………………………212.3. Reactions2.3.1.International reaction…………………………232.3.2.Public response……………………………….242.3.3.Muslim American reaction…………………...242.4. U.S. Gonernement response2.4.1. Rescue,recovery,and compensation…………….252.4.2. Immediate national response…………………...252.4.3. The War on Terrorism………………………….262.4.4. Domestic response……………………………...262.4.5. Investigations…………………………………...26
Chapter III : The effects of the dissaster
3.1. Long term effects…………………………………………..283.2. Memorials …………………………………………………303.3. Film and media…………………………………………….303.4. Rebuilding the World Trade Center………………………..31
Bibliography …………………………………………….33Annexe……………………………………………………34
Chapter I : The descriptions of World Trade Center
 2
 
The
World Trade Center
in New York City, United States, (sometimes informally referred to as the
WTC
or the
Twin Towers
) was a complex of seven buildings inLower  Manhattan, mostly designed by architectMinoru Yamasakiand engineer Leslie Robertsonand developed by thePort Authority of New York and New Jersey. It was initiated in 1960 by aLower Manhattan Association created and chaired byDavid Rockefeller , who had the originalidea of building the center, with strong backing from the then- New York governor , his brother  Nelson Rockefeller .The World Trade Center, New York, like most World Trade Centers locatedaround the globe, belonged to the family of World Trade Centers Association.Prior to itsdestruction,Larry Silversteinheld the most recent lease to the complex, the Port Authorityhaving leased it to him in July 2001.The complex, located in the heart of New York City'sdowntown financial district, contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m²) of office space,almost four percent of Manhattan's entire office inventory at that time.Best known for its iconic 110-story twin towers (101 usable floors, eight engineering-only "service" floors on top of a lobby which was three stories high) the World Trade Center was beset by a fire onFebruary 13,1975anda bombingonFebruary 26,1993. All seven original buildings in the complex were destroyed by terrorists linked toAl-QaedaonSeptember 11, 2001. Three of the buildings collapsed:One World Trade Center (1 WTC, the
North Tower
South Tower
), and7 World Trade Center (7 WTC). TheMarriott World Trade Center (3 WTC) was crushed by the collapses of 1 WTC and 2 WTC.4 World Trade Center (4 WTC),5 World Trade Center (5 WTC), and6  World Trade Center (6 WTC) were damaged beyond repair and later demolished. Three buildings not part of the complex were also destroyed:St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Churchwasdestroyed by the collapse of 2 WTC. TheDeutsche Bank BuildingandBorough of Manhattan  Community College'sFiterman Hallwere damaged beyond repair by the collapse of 7 WTC; these are currently beingdeconstructed.
1.1 Planning and construction
During the post-World War IIperiod, theUnited Statesthrived economically, with increasinginternational trade. At the time, economic growth in New York City was concentratedinMidtown Manhattan, with Lower Manhattan left out. To help stimulateurban renewal,David  Rockefeller , with support from his brother, New York Governo Nelson Rockefeller , suggested that the Port Authority should build a "world trade center " inLower Manhattan.
Initial plans,made public in 1961, identified a site along theEast River for the World Trade Center.Objections to the plan came from New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner , who resented that New York would be getting this $335 million project. Meanwhile, New Jersey'sHudson and Manhattan Railroad(H&M) was facing bankruptcy. Port Authority executive director,Austin J.  Tobinagreed to take over control of the H&M Railroad, in exchange for support from NewJersey for the World Trade Center project.With this acquisition, the Port Authority would obtain the Hudson Terminal, and decrepit buildings located above the terminal in Lower Manhattan. The Port Authority decided todemolish these buildings, and use this site along the Hudson River for the World TradeCenter.The towers in the complex were designed by architectMinoru YamasakiwithAntonio  BrittiochiandEmery Roth & Sonsas associate architects. The World Trade Center was one of  the most striking American implementations of the architectural ethic of Le Corbusier , as well asthe seminal expression of Yamasaki's gothic modernist tendencies.3

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