Prevalence of High Body Mass Indexin US Children and Adolescents, 2007-2008
Cynthia L. Ogden, PhDMargaret D. Carroll, MSPHLester R. Curtin, PhDMolly M. Lamb, PhDKatherine M. Flegal, PhD
IGH BODY MASS INDEX
(BMI)among children and ad-olescents continues to bea public health concernin the United States. Children withhigh BMI often become obeseadults,
and obese adults are at riskfor many chronic conditions such asdiabetes, cardiovascular disease,and certain cancers.
High BMI inchildren may also have immediateconsequences, such as elevated lipidconcentrations and blood pressure.
Since 1980, the prevalence of BMIfor age at or above the 95th percentile(sometimes termed “obese”) hastripled among school-age childrenand adolescents, and it remains highat approximately 17%.
However,the prevalence of BMI for age at orabove the 95th percentile amongchildren and adolescents showed nosignificant changes between 1999and 2006 for both boys and girls oramong non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican Ameri-can individuals.
Usingdatafrom2007-2008,thisar-ticle provides the most recent esti-matesofhighBMIamongchildrenandadolescentsaged2through19yearsandhigh weight for recumbent lengthamong infants and toddlers. In addi-tion,trendsinprevalencebetween1999and 2008 are analyzed.
Analyses are based on data from theNational Health and NutritionExamination Survey (NHANES), acomplex, multistage probabilitysample of the US civilian, noninstitu-tionalized population.
The surveywas conducted by the National Cen-ter for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (CDC) and was reviewedand approved by the NCHS institu-tional review board. Parents providedinformed written consent for chil-dren younger than 18 years, and chil-dren aged 7 years and older providedassent. Standardized protocols andcalibrated equipment were used toobtain measurements of height andweight.
See also pp 235 and 275.
National Center for Health Sta-tistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Hyattsville, Maryland.
Cynthia L. Ogden, PhD, Na-tional Center for Health Statistics, 3311 Toledo Rd,Room 4414, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (email@example.com).
The prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) among children and ado-lescents in the United States appeared to plateau between 1999 and 2006.
To provide the most recent estimates of high BMI among children andadolescentsandhighweightforrecumbentlengthamonginfantsandtoddlersandtoanalyze trends in prevalence between 1999 and 2008.
Design, Setting, and Participants
The National Health and Nutrition Examina-tion Survey 2007-2008, a representative sample of the US population with measuredheights and weights on 3281 children and adolescents (2 through 19 years of age)and 719 infants and toddlers (birth to 2 years of age).
95thpercentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts) amonginfants and toddlers.Prevalenceofhigh BMIamong children and adolescents definedat 3 levels: BMI for age at or above the 97th percentile, at or above the 95th percen-tile, and at or above the 85th percentile of the BMI-for-age growth charts. Analysesof trends by age, sex, and race/ethnicity from 1999-2000 to 2007-2008.
In 2007-2008, 9.5% of infants and toddlers (95% confidence interval [CI],7.3%-11.7%) were at or above the 95th percentile of the weight-for-recumbent-lengthgrowthcharts.Amongchildrenandadolescentsaged2through19years,11.9%(95%CI,9.8%-13.9%)wereatorabovethe97thpercentileoftheBMI-for-agegrowthcharts; 16.9% (95% CI, 14.1%-19.6%) were at or above the 95th percentile; and31.7%(95%CI,29.2%-34.1%)wereatorabovethe85thpercentileofBMIforage.Prevalence estimates differed by age and by race/ethnic group. Trend analyses indi-cate no significant trend between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 except at the highestBMI cut point (BMI for age
97th percentile) among all 6- through 19-year-old boys(odds ratio [OR], 1.52; 95% CI, 1.17-2.01) and among non-Hispanic white boys ofthe same age (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.22-2.94).
Nostatisticallysignificantlineartrendsinhighweightforrecumbentlengthor high BMI were found over the time periods 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004,2005-2006, and 2007-2008 among girls and boys except among the very heaviest6- through 19-year-old boys.
January 20, 2010—Vol 303, No. 3
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