INTERNATIONAL REVIEW, Fall 2007, p. 68, GALE CENGAGE LEARNING, ExpandedAcademic ASAP. Indeed, it is a reasonable generalization to characterize international economicsanctions as overused, ineffective, and unfair. The fact that sanctions are overused isdemonstrated by the large number of sanctions currently in force. They are ineffective, as shown by the number of obvious failures in sanctions policy. They are unfair, not only because of the burden they place on firms that would otherwise freely engage in international commerce, butalso because of the heavy suffering they often impose on innocent civilians in target countries.2. SANCTIONS FAIL 95% OF THE TIMESK/A01.05) Reed M. Wood [U. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill], INTERNATIONALSTUDIES QUARTERLY, September 2008, p. 490. In a 1919 speech to the United States SenateCommittee on Foreign Relations, Woodrow Wilson described economic sanctions as a "peaceful,silent deadly remedy" and an effective, nonviolent method of coercing policy concessions fromother states. Their track record, however, falls far short of Wilson's characterization. First,sanctions fail in as many as 95 percent of cases (Hufbauer, Schott, and Elliott 1990a; Pape 1997).SK/A01.06) Editorial, BRITISH MEDICAL JOUR4NAL, October 17, 2009, p. 876.Economic sanctions rarely achieve their stated objectives, with perhaps 5% having any successin changing national policies.