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SCHAEFFER, Francis A - Genesis in Space and Time

SCHAEFFER, Francis A - Genesis in Space and Time



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Published by Loyola
Argues that an almost literalist view of Genesis as historically true is fundamental to the Christian faith
Argues that an almost literalist view of Genesis as historically true is fundamental to the Christian faith

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Published by: Loyola on Jun 28, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The battle for a Christian understanding of the world is being waged on several fronts. Not theleast of these is biblical study in general, and especially the question of how the opening chapters of the Bible are to be read. Modern writers commenting on the book of Genesis tend totreat the first eleven chapters as something other than history. For some this material is simply a Jewish myth, having no more historical validity for modern man than the Epic of Gilgamesh or the stories of Zeus. For others it forms a pre-scientific vision that no one who respects the resultsof scholarship can accept. Still others find the story symbolic but no more. Some accept the earlychapters of Genesis as revelation in regard to an upper-story, religious truth, but allow any sense of truth in regard to history and the cosmos (science) to be lost. How should these early chapters of Genesis be read? Are they historical and if so what valuedoes their historicity have? In dealing with these questions, I wish to point out the tremendousvalue Genesis 1-11 has for modern man. In some ways these chapters are the most important ones in the Bible, for they put man in his cosmic setting and show him his peculiar uniqueness.They explain man's wonder and yet his flaw. Without a proper understanding of these chapterswe have no answer to the problems of metaphysics, morals or epistemology, and furthermore,the work of Christ becomes one more upper-story "religious" answer. Although I have often made deliberate changes, I have used the King James Version throughout the book. Occasionally, where the American Standard Version (ASV) is helpful, I have quoted  from it.
 I would like to thank Professor Elmer Smick, a friend of many years, who read the manuscript and offered helpful suggestions. Any errors are certainly my own.
chapter 1
The subject of this book is the flow of biblical history. The focal passage of Scripture is the firstmajor section of Genesis (chapters 1-11) which traces the course of events from the creation of the universe to the calling forth of Abraham and the beginning of the history of Israel.One of the hymns of Israel, Psalm 136, forms an excellent backdrop against which to see theunfolding of biblical history. It sets the conception of God as Creator in proper relation to man ascreature and worshipper.O give thanks unto the LORD; for he is good:for his mercy endureth for ever.O give thanks unto the God of gods:for his mercy endureth for ever.O give thanks to the Lord of lords:for his mercy endureth for ever.To him who alone doeth great wonders:for his mercy endureth for ever. (vv. 1-4)Psalm 136 thus begins with a three-fold doxology and then lists various reasons why we can praise God and why we are called upon to give thanks for his goodness. It is interesting that after giving a general reason for praise (that he "alone doeth great wonders") the psalmist directs our attention first to God's creative acts:To him that by wisdom made the heavens:for his mercy endureth for ever.To him that stretched out the earth above the waters:for his mercy endureth for ever.To him that made great lights:for his mercy endureth for ever:The sun to rule by day:for his mercy endureth for ever:The moon and stars to rule by night:for his mercy endureth for ever. (vv. 5-9)But immediately after expressing and developing the fact of God as Creator, the psalmistsweeps on to a second reason for praising God-the way God acted in history when the Jewishnation was captive in Egypt.To him that smote Egypt in their first born:for his mercy endureth for ever:And brought out Israel from among them:for his mercy endureth for ever: ... (vv. 10-11)The psalmist goes on to talk about the exodus, the dividing of the Red Sea, the overthrow of Pharaoh and the capture
of the land of Canaan (vv. 12-21).Then he turns to praise God for the way God is acting at the particular moment of space-timehistory in which this psalm was written:Even an heritage unto Israel his servant:for his mercy endureth for ever.Who remembered us in our low estate:for his mercy endureth for ever:And hath redeemed us from our enemies:for his mercy endureth for ever.Who giveth food to all flesh:for his mercy endureth for ever. (vv. 22-25)Finally in the last verse, the psalmist writes in such a way that he speaks even for us at our own point in history and incites us to call upon God and praise him:O give thanks unto the God of heaven:for his mercy endureth for ever. (v. 26)So Psalm 136 brings us face to face with the biblical concept of creation as a fact of space-time history, for we find here a complete parallel between creation and other points of history:the space-timeness of history at the time of the Jewish captivity in Egypt, of the particular time inwhich the psalm itself was written and of our own time as we read the psalm today. Thementality of the whole Scripture, not just of this one psalm, is that creation is as historically realas the history of the Jews and our own present moment of time. Both the Old and the NewTestaments deliberately root themselves back into the early chapters of Genesis, insisting thatthey are a record of historical events. What is the hermeneutical principle involved here? Surelythe Bible itself gives it: The early chapters of Genesis are to be viewed completely as history - just as much so, let us say, as records concerning Abraham, David, Solomon or Jesus Christ.
 In the Beginning 
The opening verse of Genesis, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth," and theremainder of chapter 1 brings us immediately into a world of space and time. Space and time arelike warp and woof. Their interwoven relationship is history. Thus the opening sentence of Genesis and the structure of what follows emphasize that we are dealing here with history just asmuch as if we talked about ourselves at this moment at a particular point of time in a particular geographic place.In saying this, of course, we are considering the Jewish concept of truth. Many people todaythink that the Jewish concept is rather close to the modern one-that truth is irrational. But this isnot the case. In fact, when we examine the Greek concept of truth in relationship to the Jewishconcept, we find this difference. Many of the Greek philosophers saw truth as the expression of anicely-balanced metaphysical system, rather like a mobile. That is, as long as the system balanced, it could be left alone and considered true. The Jewish concept is the opposite of this.First, it is completely opposite from the modern concept of truth because it is concerned with thatwhich is open to discussion, open to rationality, and is not just an existential leap. Here it is likethe Greek notion. And yet, it differs from and is deeper than the Greek concept because it isrooted in that which is historical. For example, we find Moses insisting, "You saw! You heard!"In Deuteronomy 4 and 5, just before he died, Moses reminded the Jews who stood before himthat when they were young they themselves had seen and heard what had occurred at Sinai, thatis, in space-time history. Their parents had died in the wilderness, but they, the children, had

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