1.0 Introduction to Surveying
This section will present a basic understanding of the concepts and tools of Land Surveying.
1.1 What is Surveying?
Surveying is a method of determining the three-dimensional position of points and objects. Thesepositions are usually, but not always, on the surface of the Earth. The established points are sometimesused to create land maps and determine boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. They arealso used to produce a topographic model that is useful in civil engineering and construction. In order toaccomplish their task, surveyors use trigonometry, physics, and practiced skill.
1.2 Why is Surveying is Important
Surveying is a great skill to learn. In the United States, people go to school just to get a job in surveying.As a surveyor, you will become valuable to your community. Hopefully in the future, surveying in Haiti willbe a paid job. Also, your surveying skills will be very valuable to Engineers Without Borders.Engineers Without Borders has been working with OFCB to create projects that will help the community of Bayonnais. Some of these future projects require a large amount of surveying.
1.3 Surveying Concepts
As mentioned in Section 1.1, Surveying establishes the spatial position (location) of points and objects.These locations are recorded as numerical data in the form of 3-D Cartesian coordinates, which meansthat each point has an X,Y and Z coordinate. In general, these coordinates are aligned with the earth’sgravity. That is, the Z direction is parallel to gravity (a vertical line) and the X-Y plane is perpendicular togravity (a horizontal plane). It should be noted that for large surveys, the coordinate system must accountfor the curvature of the earth (X-Y is not a flat plane), but that is beyond the scope of this document.The easiest way to find the coordinates of a point is to start with a known location and measure thedifference in X, Y and Z between the known location and the new point. These measured differences inthe coordinates are refered to as
Z. For measuring purposes, it is convenient to separatethe Z coordinate (vertical coordinate, or elevation) from the X and Y (Horizontal Plane). In most surveyingmethods, the “known point” is the location at which the instrument is placed. This will be discussedfurther in sections2.7and3.3.
The following sections will give a conceptual description of how to measure the difference between aknown and an unknown point in both elevation (
Z) and in the horizontal plane. .
1.3.1 Elevation (Z coordinates)
There are two ways to measure the difference in elevation between two points: Direct Leveling andTrigonometric Leveling. Both require starting with two perpendicular lines, one that is perfectly level(horizontal) and one that is vertical (parallel with gravity). The horizontal line can be a "line of sight"through a scope (either hand held or tripod mounted), or a line projected by a laser. In Direct Leveling,once the horizontal line is established between the two points, a scale (or tape measure) is held verticallyand the vertical distance between the two points is measured. This is illustrated in Fig XX.In some cases, the vertical distance cannot be measured, perhaps because the elevation of the knownpoint is underground at the new point, or the distance is too large. In this case, Trigonometric Leveling isused. In this technique, the angle between the horizontal line and a line directly to the new point (slantline) is measured. If the slant distance between the two points is also known, simply trigonometry can be1