commodities used to arouse male sexuality for the purposes of selling goods.2.Inequality and the power differential: A basic component of modern feminist theory is that men and women have differentpositions in society and that women will tend to be unequal tomen in terms of economic, political, social, and cultural power.From a criminological perspective, we might ask if this inequalityis reflected in the organization of the criminal justice system.Does it stem from the society in general or is it specific to thecriminal justice system?3.Resistance and Liberation: Feminist theory begins from anacknowledgement of women’s unequal position within apatriarchical system and then moves to resist and liberatewomen from this situation. ‘Feminist criminology’, therefore, isnot only interested in exposing the difficulties of women but of liberating women from these oppressive contexts. Therefore, thedevising of strategies for resistance and policy changes is acrucial part of feminist criminology.Early Theories of Female Criminality-
, who many consider to be the ‘father of criminology’, wrote about women as criminals.-He published a famous text titled “The Female Offender.”-He described female criminals as having an inherent tendency tocriminality. They developed this because of their inability to ‘normally’become ‘feminine’ with moral refinement (Lilly, et al, 210).-He also used physiological evidence that fit with his general racializedview of criminality. The shorter and darker women were more prone tocriminality.-Female criminals were, in sum, atavistic expressions of incompleteevolution.-Lombroso’s main point was that criminal women were too masculineand not feminine enough. Their ability to ‘think like a man’ leads themaway from the traditional feminine virtues of passivity and decorum toaggression and violence.
wrote two texts on sexual behavior and society:
Sex and Society
The Unadjusted Girl
.-In the earlier text, he argued, in a traditional fashion, that men andwomen were fundamentally different. These differences came fromthe varied use of energy. Men expended energy, women conserved it;as a result, men were aggressive and active while women were passiveand acted upon.-In
The Unadjusted Girl
, Thomas broadened his outlook.-He claimed that female delinquency was ‘normal’ under certaincircumstances (Lilly, et al, 211).2