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European Union

European Union

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Published by: ankit_has7190 on Sep 04, 2010
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03/13/2011

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ASSIGNMENTON
EUROPEAN UNION (EU)
Group #1Submitted to: Submitted By:
 
DR. AMARJEET S.KHALSA Aditi KhareAman QureshiAnkit JainAnkita RajdevAnkit Hassija
 
INTRODUCTION
 
The European Union (EU) is a supranational economic and political organization of 
27member states
, located primarilyinEurope. It was established by the
Treaty of Maastricht
,which was signed in
February 1992
and
came into forcein November 1993
, on the foundations of the pre-existingEuropean Economic Community. With almost 500 millioncitizens, the
EU combined generates an estimated 30%share (US$16.8 trillion in 2007) of the world's nominalgross world product
.The European Headquarter is at
Brussels, Belgium.
It is being selected as the headquarters of theEuropean Union because of its centralized location in Europe.The EU has developed asingle marketthrough a standardized system of laws which apply in allmember states, guaranteeing the
freedom of movement of people, goods, services and capital
. Itmaintains a
Common Trade Policy
,
Agricultural and Fisheries Policies
, and a
RegionalDevelopment Policy
. Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the
Euro
HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
TheEuropean Unionis ageo-politicalentity covering a large portion of the European continent. It is founded upon numerous treaties and has undergone expansions that has taken it
from 6memberstatesto 27, a majority of states in Europe
.Its origins date back to the post-World War IIera, in particular the foundation of the
EuropeanCoal and Steel Communityin Paris 1951
, following the "
Schuman declaration
", or theTreatiesof Romeestablishing theEuropean Economic Community. Both these bodies are now part of the European Union, which was formed under that name in
1993
.
Beginnings: War and Peace:
For centuries, Europe was the scene of frequent and bloody wars. In the period 1870 to 1945,France and Germany fought each other three times, with terrible loss of life.
A number of European leaders became convinced that the only way to secure a lasting peace between theircountries was to unite them economically and politically
.
 
So, in 1950, in a speech inspired by Jean Monnet, the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed integrating the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. As a result, in
1951, theEuropean Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
was set up, with
six members: Belgium, WestGermany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Netherlands
.The power to take decisions about the coal and steel industry inthese countries was placed in the hands of an independent,supranational body called the
"High Authority"
. Jean Monnetwas its first President.
Coal and Steel Community in 1950
 
The ECSC was such a success that, within a few years, these same six countries decided to gofurther and integrate other sectors of their economies. In
1957
they signed the Treaties of Rome,creating the
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)
and the
European EconomicCommunity (EEC)
.
 
The member states set about removing trade barriers between them andforming a
"Common Market".
 In
1967
,
the institutions of the three European communities were merged. From this point on,there was a single Commission and a single Council of Ministers as well as the EuropeanParliament.
Originally, the members of the European Parliament were chosen by the national parliaments butin 1979 the first direct elections were held, allowing the citizens of the member states to vote for the candidate of their choice. Since then, direct elections have been held every five years.
The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) introduced
new forms of co-operation between the member state governments - For example on
Defense, and in the area of "Justice and Affairs".
Byadding this inter-governmental co-operation to the existing
"Community"
system, the
MaastrichtTreaty created the European Union (EU).1993±2004: European Union
The signing of theMaastricht Treatywhich created the EU legally. On 1 November 1993, under the thirdDelors Commission, theMaastricht Treaty  (Treaty on the European Union) became effective, creating the EuropeanUnion The1994 European electionswere held resulting in theSocialist groupmaintaining their position as the largest party in Parliament. TheCouncil proposedJacques Santer asCommission President.

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