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The Clinical Drug Therapy Rationales for Nursing Practice (F

The Clinical Drug Therapy Rationales for Nursing Practice (F

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Published by Miguel Cuevas Dolot

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Published by: Miguel Cuevas Dolot on Sep 04, 2010
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03/20/2013

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Contents
SECTION 1
Introduction to Drug Therapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
1
Introduction to Pharmacology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
A Message to Students2
Overview 2
Sources of Drugs 3
Drug Classications and Prototypes 3

Drug Names 3
Drug Marketing 3
Pharmacoeconomics 4

Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs 4
Drug Approval Processes 4
Sources of Drug Information 7
Strategies for Studying Pharmacology 7

2
Basic Concepts and Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Overview 9
Cellular Physiology 9
Drug Transport Through Cell Membranes 10
Pharmacokinetics 10
Pharmacodynamics 15

Variables That Affect Drug Actions 17
Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance 20
Adverse Effects of Drugs 20

3
Administering Medications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Overview 29
General Principles of Accurate Drug Administration 29

Legal Responsibilities 30
Medication Errors 30
Medication Systems 31
Medication Orders 31

Drug Preparations and Dosage Forms 32
Calculating Drug Dosages 34
Routes of Administration 35

4
Nursing Process in Drug Therapy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Overview 47

Nursing Process in Drug Therapy 48
Integrating Nursing Process, Critical Paths and Drug Therapy 51
General Principles of Drug Therapy 59

xvii
xviii
CONTENTS
SECTION 2
Drugs Affecting the Central Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . .71
5
Physiology of the Central Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Characteristics and Functions of the Central Nervous System 72
Drugs Affecting the Central Nervous System 77
6
Opioid Analgesics and Opioid Antagonists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Overview 79
Pain 79
Endogenous Analgesia System 80
Opioid Analgesics 80
Individual Drugs 82
Principles of Therapy 89
7
Analgesic–Antipyretic–Anti-inflammatory and Related Drugs. . . . .99
Overview 99

Pain, Fever, and Inammation 100
Mechanism of Action 100
Indications for Use 102
Contraindications to Use 103
Subgroups and Individual Drugs 104
Principles of Therapy 114

8
Antianxiety and Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Overview 124
Anxiety 125

Sleep and Insomnia 125
Drugs Used to Treat Anxiety and Insomnia 126
Principles of Therapy 134

9
Antipsychotic Drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

Psychosis 144
Schizophrenia 145
Antipsychotic Drugs 145

Principles of Therapy 152
10
Drugs for Mood Disorders:
Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
Mood Disorders 163
Antidepressant Drugs 165
Types of Antidepressants and Individual Drugs 166
Principles of Therapy 171
11
Antiseizure Drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Seizure Disorders 182
Antiseizure Drugs 183
Individual Antiseizure Drugs 184
Principles of Therapy 193
CONTENTS
xix
12
Antiparkinson Drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Parkinsons Disease 202
Antiparkinson Drugs 202
Individual Antiparkinson Drugs 203
Principles of Therapy 207
13
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Skeletal Muscle Relaxants 213
Individual Drugs 214
Principles of Therapy 217
14
Anesthetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
General Anesthesia 220
Regional Anesthesia 221

Adjuncts to Anesthesia 221
Individual Anesthetic Agents 222
Principles of Therapy 222

15
Substance Abuse Disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
Substance Abuse 236
Dependence 236

Central Nervous System Depressants 237
Central Nervous System Stimulants 243
Principles of Therapy 249

16
Central Nervous System Stimulants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Uses 251

Types of Stimulants 252
Individual Central Nervous System Stimulants 252
Principles of Therapy 255

SECTION 3
Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System. . . . . .260
17
Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Autonomic Nervous System 261
Characteristics of Autonomic Drugs 266
18
Adrenergic Drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
Description 268
Individual Adrenergic Drugs 272
Principles of Therapy 275
19
Antiadrenergic Drugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
Description 283
Individual Antiadrenergic Drugs 285
Principles of Therapy 290