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Ad Hoc Network

Ad Hoc Network

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Published by: shivakumarpm26 on Sep 04, 2010
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11/05/2010

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AD HOC NETWORK:
Since the inception of wireless networkingthere have been two types of wireless networks: theinfrastructure network, including some local area networks (LANs), and the ad hoc network.
 Ad hoc
isLatin meaning "for this purpose." Ad hoc networks therefore refer to networks created for a particularpurpose. They are often created on-the-fly and for one-time or temporary use. Often, ad hoc networksare comprised of a group of workstations or other wireless devices which communicate directly witheach other to exchange information. Think of these connections as spontaneous networks, available towhomever is in a given area.
An ad hoc network is one where there are no access points passing information between participants. Infrastructure networks pass information through a central information hub whichcan be a hardware device or software on acomputer . Office networks, for example, generally usea server to which company workstations connect to receive their information. Ad hoc networks,on the other hand, do not go through a central information hub.Ad hoc networks are generally closed in that they do not connect to the Internet and are typicallycreated between participants. But, if one of the participants has a connection to a public or  private network, this connection can be shared among other members of the ad hoc network.This will allow other users on the spontaneous ad hoc network to connect to the Internet as well.Ad hoc networks are common for portable video game systems like the Sony PSP or the Nintendo DS because they allow players to link to each other to play video games wirelessly.Some retail stores even create networks within them to allow customers to obtain new gamedemos via the store's own ad hoc network.An ad hoc network can be thought of as a peer-to-peer network for the wireless age. Peer-to-peer or workgroup style networks were used to create a network environment for early Windowscomputers. This allowed these early computers to connect to each other to exchange information,usually in a smaller office environment without the need for domains and the additionalmanagement andoverheadthat comes with them.
A wireless ad hoc network is a decentralized wireless network. The network is ad hoc because it doesnot rely on a preexisting infrastructure.A challenging research area in computer networks is ad hoc networks. These are defined to bespontaneous and totally autonomous networks. Many communication protocols (like routing, resourcessharing, ...) use broadcasting mechanism to diffuse or gather
 1. An ad-hoc network is a local area network (LAN) that is built spontaneously as devicesconnect. Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each node inthe network, the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each other. In Latin,
ad 
 
hoc
literally means "for this," meaning "for this special purpose" and also, by extension,improvised or impromptu.2. In the Windows operating system, ad-hoc is a communication mode (setting) that allowscomputers to directly communicate with each other without a
router.
ABSTRACT
The deployment of infrastructure-less ad hoc networks is suffering from the lack of applicationsin spite of active research over a decade. This problem can be solved to a certain extent by porting successful legacy Internet applications and protocols to the ad hoc network domain.Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is designed to provide the signaling support for multimediaapplications such as Internet telephony, Instant Messaging, Presence etc. SIP relies on theinfrastructure of the Internet and an overlay of centralized SIP servers to enable the SIPendpoints discover each other and establish a session by exchanging SIP messages. However,such an infrastructure is unavailable in ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose twoapproaches to solve this problem and enable SIP-based session setup in ad hoc networks (i) aloosely coupled approach, where the SIP endpoint discovery is decoupled from the routing procedure and (ii) a tightly coupled approach, which integrates the endpoint discovery with afully distributed cluster based routing protocol that builds a virtual topology for efficient routing.Simulation experiments show that the tightly coupled approach performs better for (relatively)static multihop wireless networks than the loosely coupled approach in terms of the latency inSIP session setup. The loosely coupled approach, on the other hand, generally performs better innetworks with random node mobility. The tightly coupled approach, however, has lower controloverhead in both the cases.
A wireless local access network (WLAN) is an internal network consisting of wirelessly connectedequipment. An ad hoc network is a network where computers talk to each other directly without usingany form of access point. So an ad hoc WLAN is a system where multiple wireless devices are able to talkto each other without using any form of central routing system. An ad hoc WLAN is common in placeswhere computer users need to share information, but cannot or will not connect to a wireless network.
In a standard network, information comes in from the outside through a single source. Thisinformation goes to a router; it then determines which connected computer requires theinformation and sends it off. Devices connected to the internal network are able to connect toeach other freely²no additional connection protocols are required. This system relies on acentral access point, in this case a router, to divide the information and determine communication priority.

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