“You can be the smallest, you can be the weakest,you can be the worst player on the field, but when people tellyou you’re no good, and say you should give it up, you knowwhat you do?
You just keep on swinging
.” Everyone’s Hero, 2006
is the process by which activities are started,directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needsor wants are met.When you are motivated, you usually show threecharacteristics:1.
to engage in some activity2.
your energies toward a specific goal3.
You have differing
of feelings aboutreaching that goal
THEORIES OF MOTIVATIONInstinct Theory
Human beings are born with specific
knowledge abouthow to survive. These innate tendencies are
: innate tendencies or biological forces thatdetermine behaviorDoes not explain WHY the person engages in a particularbehaviorBiologists who study animal behavior later redefined instinctsas fixed action patterns
FIXED ACTION PATTERN
: innate biological force thatpredisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in thepresence of a specific environmental condition
Human beings act according to their
: biological state in which the organism lacks somethingessential for survival, such as food, water or oxygen
: state of tension that motivates the organism to act toreduce that tension
: tendency of the body to return to, andremain in, a more balanced state A
results in a
, which is a state of tension thatmotivates the organism to act to reduce the tension and returnthe body to
Drive motivates us to engage in a variety of behaviors tosatisfy biological needs.
Over a period of time, the strength of the drive wouldcontinually increase as long as it is not satisfied.
All creatures are motivated by gaining
: environmental factors, such as external stimuli,reinforcers, or rewards, that motivate or behavior
us to obtain them,
us to reduceneeds.This push-pull difference between drives and incentivesexplains some otherwise perplexing and seeminglyunexplainable behaviors.
Human beings are motivated
results from external rewardsEngaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reducebiological needs or help us obtain incentives or externalrewards
comes from within the personEngaging in certain activities or behaviors because thebehaviors themselves are personally rewarding or becauseengaging in these activities fulfils our beliefs or expectations
Biological and Social NeedsBiological needs
are physiological requirements that arecritical to our survival and physical well-being.(food, water, oxygen, sleep, etc)
are needs that are acquired through learningand experience(need to excel, for social bonds, to nourish and protect others,for independence, for fun and relaxation, etc)
Human beings seek to satisfy successively 'higher needs' thatoccupy a set
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
is a theory in psychology that
proposed in his 1943 paper, A Theory of Human Motivation.The Hierarchy of Needs was conceptualized byMaslow’s observation of monkeys. If monkeys were given achoice between play and food, they would most likely choosefood. If monkeys were given a choice between food and water,they would most likely choose water.First four components were considered as ‘deficit’ needs, whilethe last component (self-actualization) was considered as ‘being’ need.