Many physically disabled individuals are deterred from using computers due totheir inability to utilize a hand-controlled mouse. However, if directionaldiscrimination of an icon can be achieved, these individuals would be able totake on the functions of a mouse without the use of hands.We propose to design and build an electro-oculogram (EOG) biopotentialamplifier in order to obtain a physiological signal due to eye movements and touse this signal to show directional discrimination. Our design can also be usedas a model for future advancements in human-computer interactions.The EOG biopotential amplifier should be capable of detecting frequencies between dc-10 Hz, the range at which most ocular movements operate. TheEOG signal is in the microvolt range (50-3500 ?V). Therefore, when the DCoffset is removed, it will be challenging to obtain a strong, usable signal giventhe minute nature of the recorded signal. Our choice of an EOG over other possible methods was selected based on the ease of usage and the low cost of production. The software choice for data acquisition and display is C, selectedfor its graphical capabilities and flexibility in programming.
Design ConsiderationsAs illustrated in the figure 1, our project has four major subsections, which arediscussed below.The first stage of our design is the electrodes. The electrodes were chosen withthe concern of protecting the eyes from hazardous elements. ECG disposableelectrodes were used because of their easy availability. Silver/Silver-Chlorideelectrodes were chosen because the half-cell potential was the closest to zero.Electrodes with the smallest amount of half-cell potential are desirable becausethey cause the least amount of offset. By definition, the hydrogen electrode hasa zero half-cell potential, but due to the gaseous nature, they cannot be feasiblyused. Although lead electrodes have a lower half-cell potential than the Ag/Ag-Cl electrodes, lead is hazardous to the health and thus is avoided. Thus our choice of electrodes takes into account a low cost and proper signal pick-up.Stages 2 and 3 encompass the detection of horizontal and vertical movementsof the eye, respectively. The second stage (for horizontal discrimination)detects lateral movements at the periphery of each eye. The hardware in this