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EOG Mouse Control

EOG Mouse Control

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Published by: krishjajodia on Sep 04, 2010
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09/26/2010

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EOG Mouse Control
May 5,2004.
Project Members
 
Vinodh kumar. R 20011322 Naveen. R 20011266Sriram. L 20011305
COTETS
 1.
 
Introduction2.
 
Proposal – Design Considerations3.
 
Specifications4.
 
Block Diagram5.
 
Typical EOG waveform6.
 
Performance tests7.
 
Implementation plan8.
 
Observations9.
 
Electrode Placements10.
 
Requisites11.
 
Cost and Parts12.
 
Applications
Appendix
 1. Program Listing2. Schematic3. References
 
1. Introduction
 Many physically disabled individuals are deterred from using computers due totheir inability to utilize a hand-controlled mouse. However, if directionaldiscrimination of an icon can be achieved, these individuals would be able totake on the functions of a mouse without the use of hands.We propose to design and build an electro-oculogram (EOG) biopotentialamplifier in order to obtain a physiological signal due to eye movements and touse this signal to show directional discrimination. Our design can also be usedas a model for future advancements in human-computer interactions.The EOG biopotential amplifier should be capable of detecting frequencies between dc-10 Hz, the range at which most ocular movements operate. TheEOG signal is in the microvolt range (50-3500 ?V). Therefore, when the DCoffset is removed, it will be challenging to obtain a strong, usable signal giventhe minute nature of the recorded signal. Our choice of an EOG over other  possible methods was selected based on the ease of usage and the low cost of  production. The software choice for data acquisition and display is C, selectedfor its graphical capabilities and flexibility in programming.
2. Proposal:
 Design ConsiderationsAs illustrated in the figure 1, our project has four major subsections, which arediscussed below.The first stage of our design is the electrodes. The electrodes were chosen withthe concern of protecting the eyes from hazardous elements. ECG disposableelectrodes were used because of their easy availability. Silver/Silver-Chlorideelectrodes were chosen because the half-cell potential was the closest to zero.Electrodes with the smallest amount of half-cell potential are desirable becausethey cause the least amount of offset. By definition, the hydrogen electrode hasa zero half-cell potential, but due to the gaseous nature, they cannot be feasiblyused. Although lead electrodes have a lower half-cell potential than the Ag/Ag-Cl electrodes, lead is hazardous to the health and thus is avoided. Thus our choice of electrodes takes into account a low cost and proper signal pick-up.Stages 2 and 3 encompass the detection of horizontal and vertical movementsof the eye, respectively. The second stage (for horizontal discrimination)detects lateral movements at the periphery of each eye. The hardware in this
 
stage consists of the EOG biopotential amplifier. Similarly, the third stage (for vertical discrimination) consists of another EOG biopotential amplifier, but alsoincludes two summer circuits. EOG biopotential amplifiers were chosen sincethe alternative Electro-retinalgram (ERG) requires either an electrode in theinner surface of the retina or on the cornea. Moreover, the ERG is used tomeasure the changes of potential due the stimulation of the retina by a brightflash of light. The EOG is frequently the method of choice for recording eyemovement in research because of the proportionality of eye movement to eye position. Refer to figure 2 for electrode placement.When the eyes look straight ahead, a steady dipole is created between the twoelectrodes. When the gaze is shifted to the left, the positive cornea becomescloser to the left electrode, which becomes more positive. There is an almostlinear relationship between horizontal angle gaze and EOG output up toapproximately ?300 of arc. Therefore by placing electrodes to the left and rightand above and below the eye, horizontal and vertical movements can beobtained. However, the EOG suffers from a lack of accuracy at the extremes,due to noise compounded from the effects of an EEG, EMG, and the recordingequipment equivalent to approximately 10 of eye movement. Thus movementsof less than 10 or 20 are difficult to record. In addition, large eye movements of 300 of arc do not produce bioelectric amplitudes that are proportional to eye position. Thus, controlling the mouse will require a moderate movement of theeyes.The output signal from the final amplifier stage was fed to an 8 bit ADC(AD0808 CCN).
3. Specifications
 The following performance specifications were chosen based on the voltageand frequency ranges of the EOG signal.Frequency Range DC – 10 HzInput Voltage Range 50 – 3500 ?VoltsVoltage Gain ~5,000

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