Delusions of reference
- the behaviour of others or objects and event (e.g. television broadcasts) believed to refer tooneself in particular. When similar thoughts are held with less than delusional intensity they are called ideas of reference.
- global organic impairment of intellectual functioning without impairment of consciousness.
- defense mechanism in which the subject acts as if consciously unaware of a wish or reality.
An alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one isan outside observer of, one's mental processes or body (e.g., feeling like one is in a dream).
- lesser form of psychomotor retardation which occurs in depression.
("loosening of associations") A pattern of speech in which a person's ideas slip off one track onto another that iscompletely unrelated or only obliquely related. In moving from one sentence or clause to another, the person shifts the topicidiosyncratically from one frame of reference to another and things may be said in juxtaposition that lack a meaningfulrelationship. This disturbance occurs between clauses, in contrast to incoherence, in which the disturbance is within clauses.An occasional change of topic without warning or obvious connection does not constitute derailment.
signals, while the other person is unable either to comment on the incongruity or to escape from the situation.
Basic urge, instinct, motivation; a term used to avoid confusion with the more purely biological concept of instinct.
- fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American PsychiatricAssociation, Washington DC (1994). Multiaxial classification with 5 axes.
A two-person relationship, such as the therapeutic relationship between doctor and patient in individualpsychotherapy.
Imperfect articulation of speech due to disturbances of muscular control or in coordination.
- part of the mental apparatus that is present at the interface of the perceptual and internal demand systems. Itcontrols voluntary thoughts and actions, and, at an unconscious level, defense mechanisms.
- pathological preoccupation with oneself.
- vivid and detailed reproduction of a previous perception e.g. a photographic memory.
An unconscious process consisting of expansion and embellishment of detail, especially with reference to asymbol or representation in a dream.
An exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation. A person with elevated mood may describefeeling "high," "ecstatic," "on top of the world," or "up in the clouds."
A memory trace; a neurophysiological process that accounts for persistence of memory
(de Clérambault's syndrome) - patient holds the delusional belief that someone else, usually of a higher socialor professional status, is in love with them.
A science that concerns itself with the division of human beings into races and their origin, distribution, relations,and characteristics.
- exaggerated feeling of well-being. It is pathological.
Mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.
Lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of one's significance orimportance. irritable Easily annoyed and provoked to anger.
- hallucination occurring outside one's sensory field.
A state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self as opposed to inwardtoward the self, as in introversion.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images (e.g., daydreams) that serves to express unconscious conflicts,to gratify unconscious wishes, or to prepare for anticipated future events.
A recurrence of a memory, feeling, or perceptual experience from the past.
- almost no emotional expression at all -the patient typically has an immobile face and monotonous voice.
Flight of ideas
- speech consists of a stream of accelerated thoughts with abrupt changes from topic to topic and nocentral direction. the connections between the thoughts may be based on chance relationships, verbal associations (e.g.alliteration and assonance), clang associations and distracting stimuli.
Folie à deux
A shared psychotic disorder between 2 people, usually people who are mutually dependent upon each other.
Formal thought disorder
An inexact term referring to a disturbance in the form of thinking rather than to abnormality of content. See blocking; loosening of associations; poverty of speech.
The tactile hallucination or illusion that insects are crawling on the body or under the skin.
In psychoanalytic therapy, spontaneous, uncensored verbalization by the patient of whatever comes tomind.
- pervasive and unfocused anxiety.
- patient believes that a familiar person, who is often believed to be the person's persecutor,has taken on different appearances.
Freudian slips (parapraxes)
- unconscious thoughts slipping through when one is off guard.