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A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment of the Short-Form Measure of Career Orientations in a Malaysian Sample

A Preliminary Psychometric Assessment of the Short-Form Measure of Career Orientations in a Malaysian Sample

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Paper presented at the Pan-Pacific Conference, Bali (May 29 - June 2, 2010)
Paper presented at the Pan-Pacific Conference, Bali (May 29 - June 2, 2010)

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Published by: Dr Ali Yusob Md Zain on Sep 05, 2010
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ANY PROCEEDINGS OVER 3 PAGES WILL BE CHARGED AN ADDITIONAL$100 PER PAGEA Preliminary Psychometric Assessment of the Short-Form Measure of CareerOrientations in a Malaysian Sample
Ali Yusob bin Md ZainFaculty of Business, Economics and Policy StudiesUniversiti Brunei DarussalamJalan Tungku Link, Gadung BE1410Brunei Darussalamaliyusob@gmail.com; +673-2463001
ABSTRACT
This paper reports a factor analytic study which wasconducted to determine the dimensionality of theshort-form measure of career orientations developed by Ria and Baroudi [4]. The
 
“Short-Form Measure of Career Orientations” by Ria and Baroudi consists of seven dimensions or career anchors: security,autonomy, managerial competence, technicalcompetence, creativity and entrepreneurship, sense of service, and life style integration. In this study, 196university students in Malaysia responded to the short-form measure of career orientations. A factor analysisusing varimax rotation produced seven factors whichare quite similar to the original factors as proposed byRia and Baroudi. The seven factors account for about57% of the explained variance. The findings providereasonable indications that the short-form measure of career orientations has acceptable psychometric properties that can be used to identify career orientations of university students in Malaysia.
INTRODUCTION
An important aspect in an organization’s humanresource management (HRM) is human resource planning. HR planning helps the organization todetermine the right mix of people with the necessaryskills and attitudes. One aspect of research in HR  planning is “internal careers” which focuses on theindividual’s self-concept and career values [4]. Career anchor [5] or career orientation [2], which refer toself-perceived needs, values, and talents, shape anindividual’s career decisions [4]. Career orientation isconsidered as a significant factor in an individual’scareer decisions because it influences career choice,affects decisions to move from one job to another,shapes what one is looking for in life, determines anindividual’s views of the future, influences theselection of specific occupations and work settings,and affects the individual’s reactions to his/her work experiences [6]. Information about an individual’scareer orientations may be useful for the organizationto formulate career development programs that suitindividual needs.
P
eople vary in terms of their internal career orientations, forexample in terms of motives, gettingahead persons have a high need forachievement while getting secure,getting high, getting free and gettingbalance people have high needs forsecurity, challenge, autonomy, andwork-life balance, respectively. Theseorientations exist among employees inorganizations [
1]. To uncover this information, areliable and valid measure of career orientation isnecessary. This paper reports preliminary results of a psychometric assessment of the short-form measure of career orientation developed by Ria and Baroudi [4].The scale was tested in a Malaysian sample.
Career Orientations
Career orientations can be defined as attitudesexpressed by superordinate intentions of an individualthat will influence career-related decisions [Gerbera].Schein [7], who pioneered work into individual career orientations, has identified eight career anchors thatguide the career decisions of individuals:
Security.
This anchor deals with both geographicalsecurity (e.g., individuals who link themselves to a particular geographic area — putting down roots in thecommunity, investing in a house and stable life-style),and organizational/job security.
 Autonomy.
Autonomy-oriented individuals seek work situations in which they will be maximally freeof organizational constraints and restrictionsto pursue their professional competence.
Managerial competence.
Managerially orientedemployees, who wish to supervise, influence, and leadothers, seek promotions to general manager positionsas a vehicle to achieve feelings of success.
Technical competence.
Employees with strongtechnical orientations focus primarily on the intrinsic,technical content of the work, and the functional arearepresented by the work.
Creativity and entrepreneurship.
These individualsneed to create something on their own by developing anew product or service, by building a new businessenterprise through financial manipulation, or 
 
 bystarting and building a business of their own.
Sense of service.
Employees who have a serviceorientation are dedicated to serve other people and tomake the world a better place in which to live andwork.
 Pure challenge.
This anchor assesses the preferencefor overcoming impossible obstacles, solving
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ANY PROCEEDINGS OVER 3 PAGES WILL BE CHARGED AN ADDITIONAL$100 PER PAGE
unsolvable problems, and winning against extremelycapable opponents.
 Life-style integration.
Individuals with a high-scoredesire to develop a life-style that integrates family andcareer concems, with concerns for self-development.Ria and Baroudi [4] conducted a psychometric studyon the original Schein’s career anchor measure and proposed a short-form measure of career orientations.The short-form measure of career orientations consistsof twenty five items as shown in Table 1.TABLE 1Items in the short-form measure of career orientationsThe process of supervising, influencing, leading, andcontrolling people at all levelsThe chance to do things in own way and not to beconstrained by the rules of an organizationAn employer who will provide security throughguaranteed work, benefits, a good retirement programWorking on problems that are almost insolubleRemaining in specialized area as opposed to being promoted out of area of expertiseTo be in charge of a whole organizationA career that is free from organization restrictionsAn organization that will give long-run stabilityUsing skills to make the world a better place to liveand work inDeveloping a career that permits to continue to pursue own life-styleBuilding a new business enterpriseRemaining in area of expertise throughout career To rise to a high position in general managementRemaining in one geographical area rather thanmoving because of a promotionBeing able to use skills and talents in the service of an important causeThe only real challenge is to be able to confront andsolve tough problemsAlways on the lookout for ideas that would provideopportunities for starting own enterpriseIt is important to remain in one’s presentgeographical location than to receive a promotion or new job assignment in another locationA career is worthwhile only if it enables one to leadlife in one’s own wayWill accept a management position only if it is inown area of expertiseDo not want to be constrained by either anorganization or the business worldPrefer a career in which can be committed anddevoted to an important causeFeel successful only if constantly challenged by atough problem or a competitive situationChoosing and maintaining a certain life-style is moreimportant than is career successAlways wanted to start and build up own business
METHODOLOGYSample
The participants of this study are university studentswho are studying for various degree programs at theundergraduate level. The sample characteristics isshown in Table 2.TABLE 2Sample characteristics (N=220)VariableN%Gender 
 MaleFemale
5816226.473.6Age Group
17 – 20 years21 – 24 years25 – 28 years29 – 32 years33 y
 
rs and above
4316246519.573.61.82.72.3Year of Study
123
4248795119.121.835.923.2
Measures
The questionnaire used in this study consisted of thecareer orientation items shown in Table 1 , which useda five-point Likert scale (1= very important, 5 = notimportant at all) and the demographic variables shownin Table 2.
RESULTSReliability analysis
Reliability analysis was performed to assess theinternal consistency of the items used in the career orientations measure. The Cronbach’s alpha score of 0.82 shows that the scale demonstrates an acceptablelevel of internal consistency.
Exploratory Factor Analysis
Exploratory factor analysis, using varimax rotationwas conducted to examine the factor structure of theRia and Baroudi short-form measure of career orientations. The seven-factor solution explains about57% of the total variance. Items with low factoloadings were excluded from further analyses.
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