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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Purpose
Scope and Objectives
BATTERY TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
Batteries in PV Systems
Battery Design and Construction
Battery Types and Classifications
Primary Batteries
Secondary Batteries
Lead-Acid Battery Classifications
SLI Batteries
Motive Power or Traction Batteries
Stationary Batteries
Types of Lead-Acid Batteries
Lead-Antimony Batteries
Lead-Calcium Batteries
Flooded Lead-Calcium, Open Vent
Flooded Lead-Calcium, Sealed Vent
Lead-Antimony/Lead-Calcium Hybrid
Captive Electrolyte Lead-Acid Batteries
Gelled Batteries
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Batteries
Lead-Acid Battery Chemistry
Lead-Acid Cell Reaction
Formation
Specific Gravity
Pocket Plate Ni-Cads
Battery Strengths and Weaknesses
Battery Performance Characteristics
Terminology and Definitions
Battery Charging
Battery Discharging
Battery Gassing and Overcharge Reaction
Flooded Batteries Require Some Gassing
Captive Electrolyte Batteries Should Avoid Gassing
Charge Regulation Voltage Affects Gassing
Other Factors Affecting Battery Gassing
Battery System Design and Selection Criteria
Battery Subsystem Design
Connecting Batteries in Series
Connecting Batteries in Parallel
Series vs. Parallel Battery Connections
Battery Bank Voltage Selection
Battery Conductor Selection
Overcurrent and Disconnect Requirements
Battery Overcurrrent and Disconnect Requirements
Battery Auxiliary Equipment
Enclosures
Passive Cooling Enclosures
Ventilation
Catalytic Recombination Caps
Battery Monitoring Systems
Battery Maintenance
Battery Test Equipment
Hydrometer
Load Tester
Battery Safety Considerations
Handling Electrolyte
Personnel Protection
Dangers of Explosion
Battery Disposal and Recycling
BATTERY CHARGE CONTROLLERS IN PV SYSTEMS
Overcharge Protection
Overdischarge Protection
Charge Controller Terminology and Definitions
Voltage Regulation (VR) Set Point
Charge Controller Set Points
Array Reconnect Voltage (ARV) Set Point
Voltage Regulation Hysteresis (VRH)
Low Voltage Load Disconnect (LVD) Set Point
Load Reconnect Voltage (LRV) Set Point
Low Voltage Load Disconnect Hysteresis (LVDH)
Charge Controller Designs
Shunt Controller Designs
Shunt-Interrupting Design
Shunt-Linear Design
Series Controller Designs
Series-Interrupting Design
Series-Interrupting, 2-step, Constant-Current Design
Series-Interrupting, 2-Step, Dual Set Point Design
Series-Linear, Constant-Voltage Design
Series-Interrupting, Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Design
Daily Operational Profiles for Charge Controllers
About the Charge Controller Daily Profiles
Daily Profile for Shunt-Interrupting Charge Controller
Daily Profile for Series-Interrupting Charge Controller
Daily Profile for Modified Series Charge Controller
Daily Profile for Constant-Voltage Series Charge Controller
Daily Profile for Pulse-Width-Modulated Series Charge Controller
Voltage Regulation Set Point Selection
Suggestions for Voltage Regulation Set Point Selection
Temperature Compensation
Charge Controller Selection
Sizing Charge Controllers
Operating Without a Charge Controller
Using Low-Voltage “Self-Regulating” Modules
Using a Large Battery or Small Array
SELECTED REFERENCES
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7419009 Fundamentals of Batteries and Charge Control

7419009 Fundamentals of Batteries and Charge Control

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Published by Muhammadreza

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Published by: Muhammadreza on Sep 05, 2010
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10/11/2012

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