(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010
Allocate network resources to all nodes which need tosend data. In networks with fair channel access controleach node ready to send data should have an equalopportunity to transmit.
To cope with the resulting increased local traffic, metronetworks have to be easily upgradeable. Advancedtechnologies, e.g., tunable transceivers with a widertuning range and a smaller tuning time, have to beincorporated without network service disruption andreconfiguration.III.
The system under study is based on a broadcast-and-selectWDM architecture consisting of
network nodes connectedvia optical fibers to a passive star coupler (PSC) as shown inFigure 1. There are
wavelength channels, where
. Thebandwidth of a fiber is divided into
+1 channels, where
. One of the channels,
, is used as a control channel whichis shared by all nodes. The rest of the channels,
, areused as data channels.
StationNetworksUsersApair of Optical FibersStationNetworksUsers
PSC: passive star couplerFT/R: fixed transmitter/receiverTT/R: tunable transmitter/receiver
A station possible architecture
A broadcast-and-select star-based WDM optical system.
Each node in the network is connected to the PSC by atransmitting and receiving fiber, and each message isaddressed (multicast) to a number of receivers (destination setsize), randomly chosen from the
network nodes and eachreceiver tunes to one of the wavelengths that has a messageaddressed to it. Also, each node has one fixed transmitter andone fixed receiver in order to access the control channel.Moreover, in order to access data channels, each node has onetunable transmitter and one tunable receiver, so that fullconnectivity can be achieved by tuning transmitters to thedifferent wavelengths.Tuning times are not negligible with respect to the slottime. A centralized network controller allocates slots in aWDM frame according to (long-term) bandwidth requestsissued by users. When
, two or more nodes share onedata channel. Each node is equipped with a buffer in whicharriving data packets are stored. Deploying tunabletransmitters and receivers at each node allows for loadbalancing since traffic between a given pair of nodes can besent on any wavelength. In particular for nonuniform traffic,load balancing increases the channel utilization and improvesthe throughput–delay performance of the network.All stations can communicate with one another. Inaddition, a pair of fixed transceivers and control receiver bothare tuned to the control channel is dedicated for pre-transmission co-ordination. However, communication betweentwo nodes is possible only when the transmitter of the sourcenode and receiver of the destination node are tuned to thesame channel during the period of information transfer.IV.
The behavior of the system is characterized by thefollowing assumptions:
network nodes and
wavelengthchannels in the system.
Each node has a single–packet buffer, i.e., each nodecan store at most one data packet at any given time.
After transmitting a data packet in a given frame thebuffer becomes empty at the end of that frame.
Each message is multicast to a set of
Whenever the receivers of a multicast group are readyto receive a data packet the source node's transmitter isready to transmit.
A packet that arrives at the start of a slot can betransmitted during that slot to any one of the other (
1) nodes with equal probability.
A node sends out its control packet in a frame withprobability
, not only for retransmissions but also forfirst–time transmissions.
Random selection of a destination node among the (
1) nodes is renewed for each attempt of transmittinga control packet.V.
The proposed architecture aims to define a minimum groupof network nodes for a local structure, assign a uniquewavelength to a transmitter, and identify, for each transmitter,the minimum set of additional wavelengths needed to achievecommunication with every other node in the local cluster andhence all the nodes in the network.Figure 2 shows the node structure of the system. Eachreceiver is able to tune to all the wavelengths assigned to thetransmitters having direct links to it. Each processor cantransmit data on a fixed number of wavelengths, but canreceive data on a range of wavelengths by dynamically tuningto the wavelength of a transmitting station. All the processorsare synchronized at the optical coupler. The use of the samestructure for both the transmitter and receiver is strategic [6 -9]. This will greatly simplify the coupling of the localstructure. Each node can switch channels (wavelengths) duringexecution by dynamically changing the injection current to thelaser.