challenge is available bandwidth estimation at a node, secondchallenge is estimation of flow bandwidth requirement in ashared medium.
A. Node’s Available Bandwidth:
In shared wireless medium, when a node starts to transmit aflow, it consumes bandwidth from its contention neighbors.Because each node has a different view of the network, thenode cannot decide on its own whether its contentionneighbors have sufficient unused bandwidth for the new flow.Also, obtaining contention neighbor information is not easysince a node may consume the bandwidth of contentionneighbor but not able to directly communicate with thatneighbors if that neighbors are located outside transmissionrange and inside carrier-sensing range.
B. Flow Bandwidth Consumption:
Multiple nodes on a route may contend for bandwidth at asingle location and not know about each other. A node on theroute of flow cannot tell how much bandwidth the flow willconsume at its contention neighbors. The limited bandwidth of wireless ad hoc networks requires the limitation of anymessage overhead from information collection. In addition,due to mobility, information gathered about the network onlyhas limited lifetime. Hence, it is effective to collectinformation as close as possible to the time and location that itis needed.
C. QEAODV Admission Control
:The objective of admission control is to determine whetherthe available resources can meet the requirements of a newflow while maintaining bandwidth levels for existing flows.Each node views a different channel state, the availablebandwidth in the network is not a local concept. To tackle thiscondition, two terms are introduced: local bandwidth available(BWlocal), contention-neighborhood bandwidth available(BWc-neigh). Local bandwidth available is the amount of unconsumed bandwidth as observed by a given node.Contention neighborhood available bandwidth is themaximum amount of bandwidth that a node can use fortransmission without affecting the reserved bandwidth of anyexisting flows in its carrier-sensing range. Since a node mayconsume the bandwidth of nodes that are with in its contentionrange, the contention neighborhood bandwidth available for agiven node is equal to the smallest local available bandwidthof all its contention neighbors. Hence in order to admit a flow,a node must have required local bandwidth and contentionneighborhood bandwidth.
1. Calculation of Local Bandwidth Available (BWlocal)
It is the unconsumed bandwidth at a given node. Each nodein the MANET can determine its BW
by passivelylistening network activities. In our approach, we use thefraction of channel idle time based on the past history as anindication of local available bandwidth at a node. Thisapproach is justifiable since it does not consider that some of the channel time cannot be used due to the idle time caused bythe exponential backoff algorithm in IEEE 802.11 and thecollisions in the network. Using the fraction of idle channeltime can be a simple approximation for local availablebandwidth. A node can perceive the channel as either idle orbusy. The channel is idle if the node is not in any of thefollowing three states. First, the node is transmitting orreceiving a packet. Second, the node receives a RTS or CTSmessage from another node, which receives channel for aperiod of time specified in the message. Third, the node sensesa busy carrier with signal strength larger than a certainthreshold, called the carrier-sensing threshold, but the nodecannot interpret the contents of the message. By monitoringthe amount of channel idle time, T
, during every period of time, T
, the local bandwidth available BW
, for a node canbe computed using a weighted average  as followsBW
is the capacity of the channel and weight
2. Calculation of Contention Neighborhood BandwidthAvailable (BW
Each node perceives the network in a different state. Hencea node's local bandwidth available cannot provide informationabout its contention neighbors. Since it does not know theamount of BW
at other nodes. Two approaches arenormally used to obtain bandwidth information at contentionneighboring nodes. They are active approaches and passiveapproaches. In active approaches, neighbors voluntarilyexchange bandwidth information between each other. Suchexchanges normally incur high message overhead. In passive