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Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Successive Mean Quantization Transform

Fingerprint Image Enhancement using Successive Mean Quantization Transform

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Published by ijcsis
Fingerprint based identification is one of the core methodologies for person identification. A finger print is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. In this paper we presents a novel approach to enhancing fingerprint images using a SMQT(Successive Mean Quantization Transform ) for automatic enhancement of fingerprint gray scale images. There are so many approaches are there for image enhancement. Here we introduced the Fingerprint enhancement capabilities and properties of the transform are analyzed. The transform is capable to perform both a nonlinear and a shape preserving stretch of the fingerprint histogram.
Fingerprint based identification is one of the core methodologies for person identification. A finger print is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. In this paper we presents a novel approach to enhancing fingerprint images using a SMQT(Successive Mean Quantization Transform ) for automatic enhancement of fingerprint gray scale images. There are so many approaches are there for image enhancement. Here we introduced the Fingerprint enhancement capabilities and properties of the transform are analyzed. The transform is capable to perform both a nonlinear and a shape preserving stretch of the fingerprint histogram.

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Published by: ijcsis on Sep 05, 2010
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09/06/2010

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Fingerprint Image Enhancement using SuccessiveMean Quantization Transform
Dr.R.Seshadri ,B.Tech,M.E,Ph.DDirector, S.V.U.Computer CenterS.V.University, TirupatiE-mail: ravalaseshadri@gmail.comYaswanth Kumar.Avulapati,M.C.A,M.Tech,(Ph.D)Research Scholar, Dept of Computer ScienceS.V.University, TirupatiE-mail:yaswanthkumar_1817@yahoo.co.in
Abstract
Fingerprint based identification is oneof the core methodologies for personidentification. A finger print is therepresentation of the epidermis of a finger. Inthis paper we presents a novel approach toenhancing fingerprint images using aSMQT(Successive Mean QuantizationTransform ) for automatic enhancement of fingerprint gray scale images. There are somany approaches are there for imageenhancement. Here we introduced theFingerprint enhancement capabilities andproperties of the transform are analyzed. Thetransform is capable to perform both anonlinear and a shape preserving stretch of the fingerprint histogram
.
Introduction
Fingerprint image quality is of muchimportance to achieve high performance inAutomatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS). Several researches have proposedsome enhancement techniques to this end.Noise is an important factor thatinfluences fingerprint quality which ismainly produced in the processes of fingerprint acquirement and transmission.There is necessity for us to reducenoises in the fingerprint images to acquireuseful data.
 
The Successive MeanQuantization transform (SMQT) aresatisfactory in stripped noise reduction. Noisereduction is necessary to do finger printimage processing and fingerprint imageinterpretation so as to acquire usefulinformation that we want.
 
SMQT can beinterpreted as a progressive focus on detailsin an image. These characteristics make thetransform interesting for automaticenhancement of fingerprint image.In this paper the SMQT (SuccessiveMean Quantization Transform) is applied forautomatic fingerprint enhancement. Thetransform is presented using set theory. Anadjustment parameter is introduced to furthercontrol the enhancement. The nonlinearproperties of the transform are investigatedby means of the histogram change. Theimage enhancement results are comparedto histogram equalization.
Fingerprint Identification
:A finger print system works in twomodes they are Enrollment mode and
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201054http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Authentication mode as shown in the fig.1. Inthe Enrollment mode fingerprint system isused to identify and collect the relatedinformation about the person and his/herfingerprint image. Authentication mode inwhich the fingerprint system is used toidentify the person who is declared to behim/her as show
Enrollment ModeAuthentication Mode
Matching Score
Fig 1.Enrollment and Authentication of aFingerprint system
At the time of capturing the fingerprintimages from the scanner some times itacquire noisy fingerprints .The performanceof fingerprint identification system isdepending on the quality of the fingerprintimages due to the skin conditions like dry orwet ,burns, cuts and capturing sensor noiseslike manual labors a significant percentage of fingerprint images is of poor quality.The goal of fingerprint enhancementalgorithms is to improve the clarity of thefingerprint image (ridge structures) in therecoverable regions and unrecoverableregions as too noisy for further processing asshown in the fig 3(A). We proposedfingerprint image enhancement usingSuccessive Mean Quantization Transform(SMQT).
 
FINGER PRINT IMAGE ENHANCEMENT
 
SMQT (Successive Mean QuantizationTransform) is a straight forward way toenhance fingerprint image that can usedirectly. The only parameter to adjust is thelevelLevel1: 2
L-1
 ---------------------------------------------------u(2,1) u(2,2)Level 2: 2
L-2
 ---------------------------------------------------u(3,1) u(3,2) u(3,3) u(3,4)Level 3:2
L-3
 --------------------------------------------------…………………up to 8Fig 2.The SMQT as a binary tree of MQUsThe Successive Mean QuantizationTransform (SMQT) as a binary tree of MeanQuantization Units (MQUs) L as shown inthe fig.2. Today digital imaging devicestypically use the range 0
. . .
255, that is 8 bitsis used. For automatic Fingerprint imageenhancement of 8 bits images
 L
is chosen to8. Nevertheless, it could be convenient tocontrol the amount of enhancement applied.Given the original pixel set
 D
(
 x
) and theSMQT8 enhanced pixel set
 M 
(
 x
), a simplemix of the two sets can be found as
(
 z
) =
{z |
V
(
 z
) = (1
− α
)
V
(
 x
) +
α
V
(
 y
)
 , x D,y M}
MQUMQU MQUMQUMQU MQU MQU
 
MQU MQUFinger printAcquisitionFeatureExtractionTemplateFinger PrintAcquisitionFeatureExtractionMatching
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201055http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Where
α
is the blending factor. Fordefault enhancement is
α
= 1 chosen, for noenhancement is
α
= 0 chosen and values inbetween controls the amount of blending.This type of control could for example beconvenient for a human interpreting digitalX-rays. However,
α
= 1 is the default setting.Consider the enhancement of fingerprintfound in Fig. 3(B). Note the contrastenhancement achieved by the SMQT.Investigations of the properties for theenhancement can be performed by analyzingthe histogramFig. 3. (A) Original Fingerprint.Fig.3 (B) SMQT
8 E
nhanced Fingerprint.In the original image histogram it ispossible to see that this image does not takeadvantage of the full dynamic range.Fig.4(A)Original image histogram
 
Fig 4(B)SMQT
8
enhanced image histogram.
 For example
-:
In the above fig.4(A) fingerprint imageintensities between 0
25, 90
110 and 230
255 in the graph are poorly shown. In thefig4(B)SMQT(SuccessiveMean QuantizationTransform) enhanced fingerprint imagehistogram retains the basic shape of theoriginal but stretches it show the wholedynamic range. Hence, the SMQT adapts theshape of the histogram by performing anonlinear stretch. The nonlinear properties of the SMQT will yield a balanced stretch of the histogram. These desirable propertiescome from the nonlinear successivequantization based on the mean
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201056http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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