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Conversion of English Text to Braille Code vibration signal for Visually Impaired People

Conversion of English Text to Braille Code vibration signal for Visually Impaired People

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Published by ijcsis
This paper is concerned with the translation of text to Braille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove using an algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on a translation system that combines a finite state machine with left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This allows the translation of different languages and different grades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. All the implementations perform translation correctly on a range of different operating systems and machines, demonstrating that they are platform-independent. English to Braille code signal vibration conversion responds to increased demands on the Braille code that is integrated education of blind children. The changes inherent in English To Braille code signal conversion are mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident for mathematics and science notations making Braille easier to learn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blind people. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use by students integrated into regular schools, ideal for students using English as their primary or secondary language; and well-suited to the needs of blind students in developing countries
This paper is concerned with the translation of text to Braille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove using an algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on a translation system that combines a finite state machine with left and right context matching and a set of translation rules. This allows the translation of different languages and different grades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. All the implementations perform translation correctly on a range of different operating systems and machines, demonstrating that they are platform-independent. English to Braille code signal vibration conversion responds to increased demands on the Braille code that is integrated education of blind children. The changes inherent in English To Braille code signal conversion are mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident for mathematics and science notations making Braille easier to learn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blind people. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use by students integrated into regular schools, ideal for students using English as their primary or secondary language; and well-suited to the needs of blind students in developing countries

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
Conversion of English Text to Braille Codevibration signal for Visually Impaired People
M.Rajasenathipathi
Assistant professor in Computer ScienceN.G.M. College of Arts and SciencePollachi- 642001, Tamilnadu, IndiaSenathi_pathi@yahoo.co.in
Dr.M.Arthanari
DirectorBharathidasan School of Computer ApplicationsEllispettai-638116, Tamilnadu, Indiaarthanarimsvc@gmail.comM.SivakumarDoctoral Research ScholarAnna University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, Indiasivala@gmail.com
 Abstract -
This paper is concerned with the translation of text toBraille code vibration signal in an electronic hand glove usingan algorithm based on mathematical logic. It is built on atranslation system that combines a finite state machine with leftand right context matching and a set of translation rules. Thisallows the translation of different languages and differentgrades of Braille contraction, and text-to-Braille conversion. Allthe implementations perform translation correctly on a range of different operating systems and machines, demonstrating thatthey are platform-independent. English to Braille code signalvibration conversion responds to increased demands on theBraille code that is integrated education of blind children. Thechanges inherent in English To Braille code signal conversionare mostly minor for literary Braille and most evident formathematics and science notations making Braille easier tolearn by all stakeholders and easier to read and write for blindpeople. English to Braille Conversion is optimised for use bystudents integrated into regular schools, ideal for students usingEnglish as their primary or secondary languag; and well-suitedto the needs of blind students in developing countries
 Keywords: Braille; cell; hand glove; viberation; characte; dot
I.
 
INTRODUCTION
 Braille is a system of writing that uses patterns of raised dotsto inscribe characters on paper. It therefore allows visually-impaired people to read and write using touch instead of vision .It is a way for blind people to participate in a literateculture. First developed in the nineteenth century, Braille hasbecome the pre-eminent tactile alphabet. Its characters aresix-dot cells, two wide by three tall. Any of the dots may beraised, giving 26 or 64 possible characters. Although Braillecells are used world-wide, the meaning of each of the 64cells depends on the language that they are being used todepict. Different languages have their own Braille codes,mapping the alphabets, numbers and punctuation symbols toBraille cells in accordance with the varying needs. Braillecharacters can also be used to represent whole words orgroups of letters. This text can then be translated into Braillevibration signal in a hand glove. The glove contains sixvibration positions which equals to six raised dots of aBraille cell. Braille translation is not a trivial task, however,because there is a need to perform the contractionscorrectly.II.
 
BRAILLE CODE CONVERSION
 
 A. What is Braille code
 
As mentioned earlier Braille generally consists of cells of sixraised dots arranged in a grid of two dots horizontally by threedots vertically. The dots are conventionally numbered 1, 2,and 3 from the top of the left column and 4, 5, and 6 from thetop of the right column.The presence or absence of dots givesthe coding for the symbol.Figure 1 . A Braille CellEnglish Braille is used to code the letters punctuationsymbols, some double letter signs and word signs directly butcapital letters and numbers are dealt with by using a prefixsymbolFigure 2. Words and Abbreviations of Braille cell
59http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
Sample texts in BrailleBe kind to othersFigure 3. Example for Braille to EnglishFigure 4. Letters, Numerals and Special symbols of Braille
 B. Use of Braille with computer technology
The recent development of personal computers has broughtnew benefits to Braille users that have access to them.Computerized Braille translation is one of these benefits, butit is not a straightforward process because of the complexitiesof Braille construction.
 
 Difficulties of computer Braille translation:
Construction makes Braille translation difficult. Without it,Braille translation would be a relatively text characters toBraille cells. Each language (English, French) would need itsown unique mapping dictionary, but the operation would betrivial. Contraction greatly increases complexity, so computertranslation is generally difficult. For example, in German,there are many words that are formed from the concatenationof other words, similar to the English.
 
 Justification of computer Braille translation:
Braille has come under attack in recent years, with studiesshowing decreasing usage due to changing patterns of education. Alternative technologies, like speech synthesis,now exist for many of its applications. It can be safelyassumed that sighted people will use without complexity, butit is difficult for partially sighted or blind. There arefundamental reasons for continuing with Braille.
 
 Reading and writing Braille code is a form of literacy:
 
Literacy is a vital component of modern knowledge andsociety, and Braille code permits literacy for blind people.Using audio only technology denies literacy to Braille users.
 
 Braille code is silent:
 Alternative technologies to Braille may not be useful in allcircumstances. A speech synthesizer and speech interpreterforbid complete privacy and intrude on the localenvironment. This would not be appropriate in, for example,an office environment.
 
 Braille code is accurate in reading:
 Speech synthesis is an alternative method to Braille codeconversion. it may introduce different meanings. Problemswill arise from words not known to the synthesizer, miss-spelt words, or with words pronounced differently accordingto context Reading straight from the text removes apotential source of error.
 
 Braille code allows interpretation of the text by thereader, not by another:
 Any reader who wishes to interpret a text themselves – anactor, or a reader for pleasure – may want to form their owninterpretation of a text, not be forced into that of a wronglogic in computer program or particular actor. In accuraciesin interpretation may be possible.
 
 Braille code is cheaper than computer technology
:
 The mechanism to produce Braille vibration signal andproduce Blind can understand the communication to theworld very easily and it is new communication path for blindpersons.
III
B
RAILLE CODE TRANSLATION MECHANISM
 With the profitable commercialization of several publictranslators the number of approaches available for study inthe public realm has decreased. Approaches have inclined tobe based around the use of dictionaries of specifictranslations and limited rule systems because of the trade-off between translation rule numbers and accuracy. The ruleswork with a ‘window’ of the input text that can potentially betranslated, and examine the context to the right of thewindow to see a rule is correct to determine whether thewindow is in the middle or end of a word. A finite statemachine determines whether the translation is performed.This may be still the basis for commercial products, but theyhave ceased to be published in the public domain.
60http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
A finite state machine, the translation engine, works with, butis independent of a single language rules table. The formercontains the translation algorithms and functions, and thelatter all of the translation information for translation of onelanguage in one direction. The translation engine can use anylanguage rules table, so any language can be translated to orfrom Braille code if the language rules table is constructed.The language rules table consists of a set of translation rulesand a decision table. During translation the engine worksalong the input text, character by character. It attempts tomatch a window of input text starting with the currentcharacter with one of the translation rules in the languagerules table. A successful match with a translation rule mustmatch a segment of text, the context, to the left and right of the window and the state of the engine. The engine state iscontrolled by a finite state machine, using the contents of thedecision table, and regulates which subset of the languagetranslation rules can be used. This allows both contracted andnon-contracted translation can be supported from the samelanguage rules table. The translation rule then provides thetranslation for that window of input text, which is appendedto the growing output text, and the engine moves along theinput text to the next unmatched character. A description of the structure of the language rules table will clarify thetranslation mechanism.
 A. The translation algorithm and process
The details of the language rules table provided in thepreceding sections should allow the algorithm of thetranslation engine to be understood. It initializes and loadslanguage translation table and translate input text into Braillecode then it send signals to operate Braille hand glove.Current character = first character of input
While
current character <> end of input 
 Do Begin
Start at first rule whose focus begins with current character  Match = FALSE 
 Do If 
 focus matches
 And 
state is ok 
 And 
right context matches
 And 
left context matches
 Begin
 Add output from matching rule to output buffer Set new state according to matching rule Match = TRUE Current character moved along input by length of focus
 End  Else
Go to next rule
Until 
match
 End 
Before translation starts, the input text is normalized,ensuring that any character in the text is appropriate for thatlanguage. This may be upper and lower case, for instance. Itcan simplify translation and can also allow more flexibility if required.The algorithm is high-level, but simple. The design does notmake explicit what should output when no match is found foran input character. A space, or the input character, or anothercharacter, or nothing may be written, at the discretion of theimplementer and produce the no vibration in Braille glove asoutput. The choice will reflect the final user requirements foran implementation of the system.
IV
 
SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
 
 A.
 
 Braille Transalation implementation
Braille Trans is coded in the Matlab 7.6. It is designed to becompiled and run on one of the Microsoft Windows 32-bitoperating systems (Windows '95/'98/Me or WindowsNT/XP). When compiled to an executable program, in nativecode, it resides on a machine as a Windows Dynamic LinkedLibrary (DLL). This is a binary executable that supplies apublic interface to the Windows operating system and canthus be utilized by other Windows applications withcomparative case.
 B.
 
 Hardware System Description
The block diagram of Braille vibration hand glove system isas followsFigure 5. Block diagram for Vibration Hand GloveThe vibration glove system will be comprised of thefollowing key components1.
 
89C51 Micro controller2.
 
Driver Relay3.
 
Relay4.
 
RS 232 C5.
 
Vibrator motor with hand gloveMicroController89C51DriverRelay 6Relay 6Vibrator 6RS 232CPC
61http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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