Implicit Perceptual Modeling
Such algorithms incorporate the transform domainproperties for perceptual modeling. The coefficient selectioncriterion is as follows:i) Select those transform coefficients which have largeperceptual capacity, because they allow stronger watermarks tobe embedded and result in least perceptual distortion. DCcomponent satisfy this criteria and hence can be used.ii) Select only those coefficients which are least changed bycommon image processing attacks like low-pass filtering, noiseaddition etc. Low frequency AC components (or highmagnitude coefficients) as well as high magnitude DCcomponents satisfy the above criteria and can be selected.iii) High frequency components are affected by commonimage processing operations hence they are not a good choicefor watermarking.
Explicit Perceptual Modeling
Such algorithms incorporate the HVS properties forperceptual modeling. HVS models allow us to raise or lowerthe strength of the watermark because it takes into account thelocal image properties like contrast, brightness, variance etc.
DWT DOMAIN WATERMARKING
In the last few years wavelet transform has been widelystudied in signal processing in general and image compressionin particular. In some applications wavelet based watermarkingschemes outperforms DCT based approaches.
Characteristics of DWT
i) The wavelet transform decomposes the image into threespatial directions, i.e. horizontal, vertical and diagonal. Hencewavelets reflect the anisotropic properties of HVS moreprecisely.ii) Wavelet Transform is computationally efficient and can beimplemented by using simple filter convolution.iii) Magnitude of DWT coefficients is larger in the lowestbands (LL) at each level of decomposition and is smaller forother bands (HH, LH, HL).iv) The larger the magnitude of the wavelet coefficient themore significant it is.v) Watermark detection at lower resolutions is computationallyeffective because at every successive resolution level there arefew frequency bands involved.vi) High resolution subbands helps to easily locate edge andtextures patterns in an image.
Advantages of DWT over DCT
i) Wavelet transform understands the HVS more closely thanthe DCT.ii) Wavelet coded image is a multi-resolution description of image. Hence an image can be shown at different levels of resolution and can be sequentially processed from lowresolution to high resolution.iii) Visual artifacts introduced by wavelet coded images areless evident compared to DCT because wavelet transformdoesn't decompose the image into blocks for processing. Athigh compression ratios blocking artifacts are noticeable inDCT; however, in wavelet coded images it is much clearer.iv) DFT and DCT are full frame transform, and hence anychange in the transform coefficients affects the entire imageexcept if DCT is implemented using a block based approach.However DWT has spatial frequency locality, which means if signal is embedded it will affect the image locally. Hence awavelet transform provides both frequency and spatialdescription for an image.
Disadvantages of DWT over DCT
Computational complexity of DWT is more compared toDCT. As Feig (1990) pointed out it only takes 54multiplications to compute DCT for a block of 8x8, unlikewavelet calculation depends upon the length of the filter used,which is at least 1 multiplication per coefficient.
DWT based watermarking schemes follow the sameguidelines as DCT based schemes, i.e. the underlying conceptis the same; however, the process to transform the image intoits transform domain varies and hence the resulting coefficientsare different. Wavelet transforms use wavelet filters totransform the image. There are many available filters, althoughthe most commonly used filters for watermarking are HaarWavelet Filter, Daubechies Orthogonal Filters and DaubechiesBi-Orthogonal Filters. Each of these filters decomposes theimage into several frequencies. Single level decompositiongives four frequency representations of the images. These fourrepresentations are called the LL, LH, HL, HH subbands asshown in Fig.3.
Single level Decomposition using DWT
DWT algorithms can be classified based on their decoderrequirements as Blind Detection or Non-blind Detection. Blinddetection doesn't require the original image for detecting thewatermarks; however, non-blind detection requires the originalimage.
DFT DOMAIN WATERMARKING
DFT domain has been explored by researches because it offersrobustness against geometric attacks like rotation, scaling,cropping, translation etc.LL1 HL1LH1 HH1
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201066http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500