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Image Retrieval using Row Means of Column Transformed Even and Odd Parts of Image with Walsh, Haar and Kekre Transforms

Image Retrieval using Row Means of Column Transformed Even and Odd Parts of Image with Walsh, Haar and Kekre Transforms

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Published by ijcsis
The paper presents an innovative content based image retrieval (CBIR) technique based on row mean of column transformed even and odd part of image. Here the performance of proposed CBIR technique is tested for different transforms like Walsh transform, Haar transform and Kekre transform. Instead of using all pixels of image as feature vector for image retrieval, row mean of transform applied on columns of odd and even part of image is used, resulting into better performance with much lower computations. The proposed CBIR techniques are tested on generic image database having 1000 images spread across 11. For each transform 55 queries (5 per category) were fired. Then the precision and recall for all queries are computed. While considering the relevance of result images for calculation of precision and recall the results of odd image part and even image part both are ORED. The average precision and average recall values of all queries gives the performance comparison of proposed CBIR methods as compared to considering full image data as feature vector or considering the simple row mean as feature vector. The results have shown the performance improvement (higher precision and recall values) with proposed methods compared to all pixel data of image at reduced computations resulting in faster retrieval. The comparison of transforms for CBIR performance gives Walsh transform surpassing the other two considered here.
The paper presents an innovative content based image retrieval (CBIR) technique based on row mean of column transformed even and odd part of image. Here the performance of proposed CBIR technique is tested for different transforms like Walsh transform, Haar transform and Kekre transform. Instead of using all pixels of image as feature vector for image retrieval, row mean of transform applied on columns of odd and even part of image is used, resulting into better performance with much lower computations. The proposed CBIR techniques are tested on generic image database having 1000 images spread across 11. For each transform 55 queries (5 per category) were fired. Then the precision and recall for all queries are computed. While considering the relevance of result images for calculation of precision and recall the results of odd image part and even image part both are ORED. The average precision and average recall values of all queries gives the performance comparison of proposed CBIR methods as compared to considering full image data as feature vector or considering the simple row mean as feature vector. The results have shown the performance improvement (higher precision and recall values) with proposed methods compared to all pixel data of image at reduced computations resulting in faster retrieval. The comparison of transforms for CBIR performance gives Walsh transform surpassing the other two considered here.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 08, No.05, 2010
Image Retrieval using Row Means of ColumnTransformed Even and Odd Parts of Image withWalsh, Haar and Kekre Transforms
Dr. H.B.Kekre
1
, Sudeep D. Thepade
2
, Akshay Maloo
3
 
1
Senior Professor,
2
Ph.D.Research Scholar & Associate Professor,
3
B.Tech (CE) Student
 
Computer Engineering Department, MPSTME,
SVKM‟s
NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai, India
1
hbkekre@yahoo.com,
2
sudeepthepade@gmail.com,
3
akshaymaloo@gmail.com
 Abstract
 — 
 
The paper presents an innovative content based imageretrieval (CBIR) technique based on row mean of columntransformed even and odd part of image. Here the performanceof proposed CBIR technique is tested for different transformslike Walsh transform, Haar transform and Kekre transform.Instead of using all pixels of image as feature vector for imageretrieval, row mean of transform applied on columns of odd andeven part of image is used, resulting into better performance withmuch lower computations. The proposed CBIR techniques aretested on generic image database having 1000 images spreadacross 11. For each transform 55 queries (5 per category) werefired. Then the precision and recall for all queries are computed.While considering the relevance of result images for calculationof precision and recall the results of odd image part and evenimage part both are ORED. The average precision and averagerecall values of all queries gives the performance comparison of proposed CBIR methods as compared to considering full imagedata as feature vector or considering the simple row mean asfeature vector. The results have shown the performanceimprovement (higher precision and recall values) with proposedmethods compared to all pixel data of image at reducedcomputations resulting in faster retrieval. The comparison of transforms for CBIR performance gives Walsh transformsurpassing the other two considered here.
 Keywords-content based image retrival (CBIR), row mean,Walsh transform, Haar transform, Kekre transform.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 The large numbers of images are being generated from avariety of sources (digital camera, video, scanner, the internetetc.) which have posed technical challenges to computersystems to store/transmit and index/manage image dataeffectively to make such large collections easily accessible.Image compression deals with the challenge of storage andtransmission, where significant advancements have been made[1,4]. The challenge to image indexing is studied in the contextof image database [2,6,7,10,11], which has become one of themost promising and important research area for researchersfrom a wide range of disciplines like computer vision, imageprocessing and database areas. The thirst of better and fasterimage retrieval techniques is increasing day by day. Some of important applications for CBIR technology could be identifiedas art galleries [12,14], museums, archaeology [3], architecturedesign [8,13], geographic information systems [6], trademark databases [21,22], weather forecast [5,21], medical imaging[5,18], criminal investigations [23], image search on theInternet [9,19,20].
 A.
 
Content Based Image Retrieval
In literature the term content based image retrieval (CBIR)has been used for the first time by Kato et.al. [4], to describehis experiments into automatic retrieval of images from adatabase by colour and shape feature. The typical CBIR systemperforms two major tasks [16,17]. The first being featureextraction (FE), where a set of features, called feature vector, isgenerated to accurately represent the content of each image inthe database. The second task is similarity measurement (SM),where distance between the query image and each image in thedatabase using their feature vectors is used to retrieve the top
“closest” images [16,17
]. For feature extraction in CBIR thereare mainly two approaches [5] feature extraction in spatialdomain and feature extraction in transform domain. The featureextraction in spatial domain includes CBIR techniques basedon histograms [5], BTC [1,2,16], VQ [21]. The transformdomain methods are widely used in image compression, as theygive high energy compaction in transformed image [17,24]. Soit is obvious to use images in transformed domain for featureextraction in CBIR [23]. But taking transform of image is timeconsuming, this complexity is reduced to a great extent by theproposed technique. Reducing the size of feature vector usingpure image pixel data in spatial domain only and till getting theimprovement in performance of image retrieval is the theme of the work presented. Many current CBIR systems use Euclideandistance [1-3,8-14] on the extracted feature set as a similaritymeasure. The Direct Euclidian Distance between image P andquery image Q can be given as equation 1, where Vpi and Vqiare the feature vectors of image P and Query image Qrespectively
with size „n‟.
 
ni
VqiVpi ED
12
)(
 (1)II.
 
I
MAGE
T
RANSFORMS
 The various transforms [5,24] used for proposed CBIRtechniques are discussed below:
79http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 08, No.05, 2010
 A.
 
Walsh TransformThe Walsh transform matrix [5,18] is defined as a set of Nrows, denoted Wj, for j = 0, 1, ... , N - 1, which have thefollowing properties:
Wj takes on the values +1 and -1.
Wj[0] = 1 for all j.
Wj xWkT=0, for j k and Wj xWkT =N, for j=k.
Wj has exactly j zero crossings, for j = 0, 1, ...., N-1.
Each row Wj is either even or odd w.r.t. to its midpoint.
 B.
 
Haar TransformThis sequence was proposed in 1909 by AlfrédHaar. Haarused these functions to give an example of a countableorthonormal system for the space of square-integrablefunctions on the real line [24]. The study of wavelets, andeven the term "wavelet", did not come until much later. TheHaar wavelet is also the simplest possible wavelet. Thetechnical disadvantage of the Haar wavelet is that it is notcontinuous, and therefore not differentiable. This property can,however, be an advantage for the analysis of signals withsudden transitions, such as monitoring of tool failure inmachines.
C.
 
Kekre‟s Transform
 
Kekre‟s transform matrix is the generic version of Kekre‟s
LUV color space matrix [1,18
]. Kekre‟s transform matrix c
anbe of any size NxN, which need not have to be in powers of 2(as is the case with most of other transforms). All upper
diagonal and diagonal values of Kekre‟s transform matrix are
one, while the lower diagonal part except the values just belowdiagonal is zero.
Generalized NxNKekre‟s transform matrix can be given as:
 
1)1(..000 11..000 11..120 11..111 11..111
 N  N  N  N 
 NxN 
 (2)The formula for generating the term K
xy
of Kekre‟s
transform matrix is:(3)III.
 
P
ROPOSED
T
ECHNIQUE
 The CBIR technique given in [24] has been extended here.In [24] the feature vector considered for CBIR is row mean of column transformed image. Here first the odd part and even
 part of image are obtained using it‟s mirror image. Then
 transform is applied on each column of obtained images tocalculate feature vector, image retrieval is done using bothfeature vectors (F1 & F2). The obtained results are combinedusing OR operator to obtain the final results. Figure 1 showsthe feature extraction in proposed CBIR technique with rowmean [25] of transformed image columns.
Figure 1 Feature Extraction in Proposed CBIR Technique using row means of column transformed even and odd part of image
80http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 08, No.05, 2010
R R N R N R
Sorted Image Index for Even Part (P1)
 R R N N R R
Sorted Image Index for Odd Part (P2)
 R R N R R R
Result Image Index after using OR operator
 
Figure 2 How OR operator is used in proposed CBIR technique
The feature extraction steps for proposed image retrievalmethod can be given as follows.1.
 
Calculate the mirror image across Y-axis of the queryimage.2.
 
Using the image and its mirror image to calculate theEven Image (P1) and Odd image (P2). When you addboth P1 and P2 you get the original image back.3.
 
Apply transform T on the column of P1 and P2images of size NxN (I
NxN
) to get column transformedimages of the same size (cI
NxN
)cI
NxN
(column transformed) = [T
NxN
] [I
NxN
] (4)4.
 
Calculate row mean of column transformed image toget feature vector of size N (instead of N
2
). We gettwo feature vectors for Even and Odd part (F1 & F2).5.
 
Then Euclidean Distance is applied and the results aresorted in ascending order for both feature vectors. Theobtained results are combined using OR operator asseen in figure 2, to calculate precision and recall forthe proposed technique.The proposed technique is applied for three differenttransforms to see where the best performance is obtained. Theresults are compared with applying transform on full image androw mean on image (without column transform).The figure 2 shows how OR operator is used in proposedCBIR technique
s. Here the „R‟ is relevant image retrieved and„N‟ is non
-relevant image retrieved. These relevancies are thenconsidered to compute precision and recall values for allqueries.IV.
 
I
MPLEMENTATION
 
 A.
 
The Platform
The implementation of the proposed CBIR techniques isdone in MATLAB 7.0 using a computer with Intel Core 2 DuoProcessor T8100 (2.1GHz) and 2 GB RAM.
 B.
 
 Database
The CBIR techniques are tested on the image database [15]of 1000 variable size images spread across 11 categories of human being, animals, natural scenery and manmade things.Figure 3 shows sample image of generic database.
Figure 3 Sample Images from Generic Image Database[Image database contains total 1000 images with 11 categories]
C.
 
Precision/Recall
To assess the retrieval effectiveness, we have used theprecision and recall as statistical comparison parameters [1,2]for the proposed CBIR techniques. The standard definitionsfor these two measures are given by following equations.
retrieved imagesof number Total retrieved imagesrelevant of  Number  ecision
____ ____ Pr
 (4)
databaseinimagesrelevent of number Total retrieved imagesrelevant of  Number  call
______ ____ Re
 (5)V.
 
R
ESULTS AND
D
ISCUSSIONS
 For testing the performance of each proposed CBIRtechnique, per technique 55 queries (5 from each category) arefired on the database of 1000 variable size generic imagesspread across 11 categories. The query and database imagematching is done using Euclidian distance. The averageprecision and average recall are computed and are plottedagainst number of retrieved images. The crossover point of precision and recall gives important performance measure forimage retrieval techniques. Higher the crossover point is betterwill be the performance of CBIR method.
81http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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