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IEEM Programming Procedure For Detecting Boundary Of Carotid Artery

IEEM Programming Procedure For Detecting Boundary Of Carotid Artery

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Published by ijcsis
This paper presents an IEEM programming procedure for use on noisy B-mode ultrasound images of the carotid artery. This programming procedure is based on Image Enhancement, Edge detection and Morphological operations in Boundary detection. This procedure may simplify the job of the practitioner for analyzing accuracy and variability of segmentation results. Possible plaque regions are also highlighted. A thorough evaluation of the method in the clinical environment shows that inter observer variability is evidently decreased and so is the overall analysis time. The results demonstrate that it has the potential to perform qualitatively better than applying existing methods in intima and adventitial layer detection on B-mode images.
This paper presents an IEEM programming procedure for use on noisy B-mode ultrasound images of the carotid artery. This programming procedure is based on Image Enhancement, Edge detection and Morphological operations in Boundary detection. This procedure may simplify the job of the practitioner for analyzing accuracy and variability of segmentation results. Possible plaque regions are also highlighted. A thorough evaluation of the method in the clinical environment shows that inter observer variability is evidently decreased and so is the overall analysis time. The results demonstrate that it has the potential to perform qualitatively better than applying existing methods in intima and adventitial layer detection on B-mode images.

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IEEM PROGRAMMING PROCEDURE FORDETECTING BOUNDARY OF CAROTIDARTERY
V.Savithri Dr.S.PurushothamanProfessor,Department of Computer Science Principal, Sun College of Engineering andMother Teresa Women’s University TechnologyKodaikanal, INDIA Kanyakumari, INDIASavi3_8@yahoo.co.indr.purushothaman.s@gmail.com
 
AbstractAbstractAbstractAbstract--------
This paper presents an IEEM programmingThis paper presents an IEEM programmingThis paper presents an IEEM programmingThis paper presents an IEEM programmingprocedure for use onprocedure for use onprocedure for use onprocedure for use on noisy Bnoisy Bnoisy Bnoisy B----mode ultrasound imagesmode ultrasound imagesmode ultrasound imagesmode ultrasound imagesof the carotid artery. This programming procedure isof the carotid artery. This programming procedure isof the carotid artery. This programming procedure isof the carotid artery. This programming procedure isbased on Image Enhancement, Edge detection andbased on Image Enhancement, Edge detection andbased on Image Enhancement, Edge detection andbased on Image Enhancement, Edge detection andMorphological operations in Boundary detection. ThisMorphological operations in Boundary detection. ThisMorphological operations in Boundary detection. ThisMorphological operations in Boundary detection. Thisprocedure may simplify the job oprocedure may simplify the job oprocedure may simplify the job oprocedure may simplify the job of the practitionerf the practitionerf the practitionerf the practitionerfor analyzing accuracy and variability of segmentationfor analyzing accuracy and variability of segmentationfor analyzing accuracy and variability of segmentationfor analyzing accuracy and variability of segmentationresults. Possible plaque regions are also highlighted.results. Possible plaque regions are also highlighted.results. Possible plaque regions are also highlighted.results. Possible plaque regions are also highlighted.
 
AAAAthorough evaluation of the method in the clinicalthorough evaluation of the method in the clinicalthorough evaluation of the method in the clinicalthorough evaluation of the method in the clinicalenvironment shows that inter observer variabilityenvironment shows that inter observer variabilityenvironment shows that inter observer variabilityenvironment shows that inter observer variability
 
isisisisevevevevidently decreased and so is the overallidently decreased and so is the overallidently decreased and so is the overallidently decreased and so is the overall
 
analysisanalysisanalysisanalysistime. The results demonstrate that ittime. The results demonstrate that ittime. The results demonstrate that ittime. The results demonstrate that it has thehas thehas thehas thepotential to perform qualitatively better thanpotential to perform qualitatively better thanpotential to perform qualitatively better thanpotential to perform qualitatively better thanapplying existing methods in intima andapplying existing methods in intima andapplying existing methods in intima andapplying existing methods in intima andadventadventadventadventitial layer detection on Bitial layer detection on Bitial layer detection on Bitial layer detection on B----mode images.mode images.mode images.mode images.
 
KeywordsKeywordsKeywordsKeywords---- Artery, boundary detection , imaging,Artery, boundary detection , imaging,Artery, boundary detection , imaging,Artery, boundary detection , imaging,Ultrasonic, parallel programming.Ultrasonic, parallel programming.Ultrasonic, parallel programming.Ultrasonic, parallel programming.
I. Introduction
Over the last few years, image processing hasbeen playing an increasingly important role in manyscientific areas. This is due, among other reasons, to theever-improving performance of computers that are nowcapable of quickly processing the characteristically largeamounts of data produced by images. This processing ismostly oriented toward extracting either qualitative orquantitative information from object images. In particular,[1][2]precise dimensional characterization of objectsthrough contact-less measurement techniques is a veryimportant task in several environments such as industrialquality and process control and medical diagnosis.[4] Atypical application field of medical image processing is inthe diagnosis of atherosclerosis.[5]The atherosclerosisprocess is strongly linked to carotid
thickening andplaques, whose presence can be clearly detected inartery longitudinal
section images provided by ultrasoundtechniques.[6]The analysisof the carotid ultrasoundrepresents, in fact, the most powerful instrument todayavailable for predictingcoronary disorders in people overfifty .Images are taken by ultrasound equipment working atfrequencies ranging from 1 to 20 MHz, and are obtained viaa probe that has to be positioned on the patient’s neck.[3]There are two phases to the measurement process: i)carotid image capturingand ii) thickness measurement.
 
Ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis andillness and injury. The noninvasive imaging of differentparts of the body has other applications in medicaldiagnosis, such as in tissue characterization andmeasurement of tissue motion.The measurement of tissuemotion[9] is a broad category. It can include the analysis of the motion of physically active organs such as the heart anddiscrete structures such as cardiac valves and arterial walls.It can refer to the analysis of motion induced in passivetissues, such as liver or lung, due to active organs such asthe heart or by external sources such as low frequencyvibration or compression. The response of the tissue is afunction its elasticity, which is directly related to thehealthiness of the tissue. [12]The measurement of bloodflow velocity is an important parameter in diagnosingvascular diseases such as venous thrombosis. Regardless of the particular medical application of ultrasound, allapplications require the transmission and capture of radio-frequency (RF) ultrasonic signals. The signals must beprocessed in some way to extract the desired information. Inthe case of assessing tissue motion, Doppler ultrasound hasbeen very popular, particularly in the measurement of bloodflow. Practically all commercial ultrasound blood flowmeasurement systems utilize the frequency-domain Dopplertechnique. Doppler techniques have been around for a longtime, and have been extensively covered in the literature. Inaddition to Doppler, however, time-domain methods of measuring tissue motion also exits, which have not beencomprehensively reviewed.[17]Time-domain methods havepotential advantages over Doppler techniques in
manyapplications,
and the use of time-domain based methods isbecoming more and more widespread.Due to[6] the huge amount of informationintravascular
((((
IVUS) images are increasing their role in thediagnosis and treatment of several diseases. Manual
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201085http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
segmentation is
 
slow and lacks of objectivity.[10]Consequently, automatic segmentation and tracking of thevessel inner wall in IVUS images has been approached inseveral recent works.[8] The poor quality of the imagessuggests the use of techniques such as probabilities or fuzzy
 
logic
 
guiding an active contour to adjust the inner wall.
II. Materials and MethodsII. Materials and MethodsII. Materials and MethodsII. Materials and MethodsProblem DefinitionProblem DefinitionProblem DefinitionProblem Definition
The noise created during ultrasound scanningleads to difficulty in defining the boundary of the vessel.The image is further deteriorated by the occurrence of lipidrich plaque a poorly angled transducer during imageacquisition. Difficult in highlighting plaque region.
BOUNDARY DETECTIONBOUNDARY DETECTIONBOUNDARY DETECTIONBOUNDARY DETECTION
Ultrasonic Artery Images
Figure 1Figure 1Figure 1Figure 1(a) Carotid artery image. (b) Definition of echo zones and(a) Carotid artery image. (b) Definition of echo zones and(a) Carotid artery image. (b) Definition of echo zones and(a) Carotid artery image. (b) Definition of echo zones andinterfaces.interfaces.interfaces.interfaces.
Figure. 1(a) shows a representative image of a carotid artery.The femoral artery has a similar appearance. The echoes inthe region of interest can be schematically grouped intoseven echo zones Z1–Z7 [Figure. 1(b)]. Previous studies[12], [13] have shown that the leading edge (upper side) of Z3, Z5, and Z7, denoted as I3, I5, and I7, can be mapped tothe near-wall intima–lumen interface, the far-wall lumen–intima interface, and the far-wall media–adventitia interface,respectively. Consequently, the distancebetween I3 and I5represents the LD and the distance between I5 and I7 is thefar-wall IMT.With this understanding, the determination of ultrasonic measurement of the artery becomes equivalent toaccurately detecting the echo boundaries I3, I5, and I7.[14]The femoral artery has a similar appearance.The echoes in the region of interest can be schematicallygrouped into seven echo zones Z1–Z7 .[15][16] Previousstudies have shown that the leading edge (upper side) of Z3,Z5, and Z7, denoted as I3, I5, and I7, can be mapped to thenear-wall intima–lumen interface, the far-wall lumen–intimainterface, and the far-wall media–adventitia interface,respectively. Consequently, the distance between I3 and I5represents the LD and the distance between I5 and I7 is thefar-wall IMT. With this understanding,[14 the determinationof ultrasonic measurement of the artery becomes equivalentto accurately detecting the echo boundaries.
III. IEEM programming procedureIII. IEEM programming procedureIII. IEEM programming procedureIII. IEEM programming procedure
Image Enhancement:Image Enhancement:Image Enhancement:Image Enhancement:
Histogram equalization provides more visuallypleasing results across a wider range of images.Image brightness[11] may be improved by modifyingthe histogram of the image.
Image Denoising:Image Denoising:Image Denoising:Image Denoising:
An image is often corrupted by noise in its acquisition ortransmission. Noise is any undesired information thatcontaminates an image. Noise appears in images from avariety of sources. The goal of denoising is to remove thenoise while retaining as much as possible the importantsignal features. Denoising can be done through filtering.Filters reduces noise. Gaussian highpass filter helps toreduces a noise.
% H = guassian_filter(co,ro,fo);% H = guassian_filter(co,ro,fo);% H = guassian_filter(co,ro,fo);% H = guassian_filter(co,ro,fo);H = 1H = 1H = 1H = 1 –– H;H;H;H;Out = Zeros(co,ro);Out = Zeros(co,ro);Out = Zeros(co,ro);Out = Zeros(co,ro);Outf = imf. * H;Outf = imf. * H;Outf = imf. * H;Outf = imf. * H;Out = abs ( ifft2(outf));Out = abs ( ifft2(outf));Out = abs ( ifft2(outf));Out = abs ( ifft2(outf));Imshow(im), title (‘Original image’), figure,Imshow(im), title (‘Original image’), figure,Imshow(im), title (‘Original image’), figure,Imshow(im), title (‘Original image’), figure,Imshow((out)), title (‘Filtered Image’) figure,Imshow((out)), title (‘Filtered Image’) figure,Imshow((out)), title (‘Filtered Image’) figure,Imshow((out)), title (‘Filtered Image’) figure,Imshow (H), titImshow (H), titImshow (H), titImshow (H), title(‘2D view of B’), figure, surf(H),le(‘2D view of B’), figure, surf(H),le(‘2D view of B’), figure, surf(H),le(‘2D view of B’), figure, surf(H),Title (‘3D view of H’)Title (‘3D view of H’)Title (‘3D view of H’)Title (‘3D view of H’)
Edge Detection:Edge Detection:Edge Detection:Edge Detection:
The IEEM defines edges as Zero-crossings of secondderivatives in the direction of the greatest first derivate. Thisworks in multistage process (i) image is smoothed byGaussian convolution (ii) 2D first derivate operator isapplied to the smoothed image to highlight region of theimage with high spatial derivatives. The effectiveness of this algorithm is determined by three parameters (i) width of the Gaussian kernel (ii) upper threshold (iii) lower thresholdused by tracker.
Morphological operations for Boundary detection:Morphological operations for Boundary detection:Morphological operations for Boundary detection:Morphological operations for Boundary detection:
Morphological operations are very effective in the detectionof boundaries in a binary image X. The following boundarydetectors are widely used:Y = X – ( X
B )Y = ( X B ) = X orY = (X B) - ( X
B )where Y is the boundary image, operator
denotes erosionoperator denotes dilation denotes set theoreticalsubtraction.%Boundary detectorClose all;Clear all;Clc;a=imread(‘carotid.jpg’);b=[010;111;010];a1=imdilate(a,b);a2=imerode(a,b);a3=a-a2;a4=a1-a;a5=a1-a2;imshow(a)figure,imshow(a1),title(‘Dilated Image’)figure, imshow(a2),title(‘Eroded Image’)
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201086http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Segmentation of the intimaSegmentation of the intimaSegmentation of the intimaSegmentation of the intima----media region:media region:media region:media region:
We introduce a new method for the segmentation of the imtima-media region in ultrasound images, whichcombines splines(for the adventitia detection),dynamic programming(dp), smooth intensitythresholding surfaces and a successful geometricactive contour model and known for its accuracy,flexibility and robustness. Several image features areused in the segmentation. Human interaction isminimal. It is able to segment both near-end and far-end carotid walls; it supports to detect plaques of different sizes, shapes and classes.
IV. Results and discussionIV. Results and discussionIV. Results and discussionIV. Results and discussion
TABLE 1
READING VARIABILITY(%) WHENMEASUREMENTS WERE PERFORMED BYTHREE READERS BEFORE APPLYING IEEMPROCEDURE.READER1(accuracy)READER2(accuracy)READER3(accuracy)AVERAGE(accuracy %)82% 80% 84% 82%
Original imageOriginal imageOriginal imageOriginal image
gray
 
indexed
 
G-canny
morphed
 
TABLE 2
READING VARIABILITY(%) WHENMEASUREMENTS WERE PERFORMED BYTHREE READERS AFTER APPLYING IEEMPROCEDURE.READER1(accuracy)READER2(accuracy)READER3(accuracy)AVERAGE(accuracy %)94% 94.5% 96% 94.5%
V. ConclusionV. ConclusionV. ConclusionV. Conclusion
In conclusion, We have proposed a method basedon IEEM programming procedure to automatically measureultrasonic artery images. The human knowledge of theartery image is incorporated in the system, which makes thesystem capable in processing images of different quality.Human factors in the determination of the boundaries arereduced. Evaluation of the system shows reduced interobserver variability as well as overall analysis time. Theautomated artery boundary detection system can replace theold manual system in a clinical application environment.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 201087http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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