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Performance Evaluation of SVM based Abnormal Gait Analysis with Normalization

Performance Evaluation of SVM based Abnormal Gait Analysis with Normalization

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Published by ijcsis
Support Vector Machine classifiers are powerful toolsthat are specifically designed to solve large-scale classification problems. In 1990s, Vapnik along with a group of other mathematicians and scientists developed a new statistical approach that is more efficient particularly in dealing with large classification problems which they called as Support Vector Machines (SVM). An SVM method is being broadly used in gait analysis because of its remarkable learning ability. In this paper, a two stage SVM algorithm is proposed for children abnormal gait analysis. The algorithm uses T-Test based preprocessing methods for feature selection, normalization and combines SVM for Classification. Only samples that have weak relationships with all the clusters are involved in SVM. Experimental results reveal that this algorithm based on T-Test-SVM combination achieves a remarkable recognition performance for children abnormal gait analysis with reduced Computational cost.
Support Vector Machine classifiers are powerful toolsthat are specifically designed to solve large-scale classification problems. In 1990s, Vapnik along with a group of other mathematicians and scientists developed a new statistical approach that is more efficient particularly in dealing with large classification problems which they called as Support Vector Machines (SVM). An SVM method is being broadly used in gait analysis because of its remarkable learning ability. In this paper, a two stage SVM algorithm is proposed for children abnormal gait analysis. The algorithm uses T-Test based preprocessing methods for feature selection, normalization and combines SVM for Classification. Only samples that have weak relationships with all the clusters are involved in SVM. Experimental results reveal that this algorithm based on T-Test-SVM combination achieves a remarkable recognition performance for children abnormal gait analysis with reduced Computational cost.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
Performance Evaluation of SVM basedAbnormal Gait Analysis with Normalization
M. Pushpa Rani
1
 
1
Associate Professor in Computer Science,Mother Teresa Women’s University,Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India
G.Arumugam
2
 
2
Professor & Head, Dept. of Computer Science,Madurai Kamaraj University,Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
 
 Abstract
—Support Vector Machine classifiers are powerful toolsthat are specifically designed to solve large-scale classificationproblems. In 1990s, Vapnik along with a group of othermathematicians and scientists developed a new statisticalapproach that is more efficient particularly in dealing with largeclassification problems which they called as Support VectorMachines (SVM). An SVM method is being broadly used in gaitanalysis because of its remarkable learning ability. In this paper,a two stage SVM algorithm is proposed for children abnormalgait analysis. The algorithm uses T-Test based preprocessingmethods for feature selection, normalization and combines SVMfor Classification. Only samples that have weak relationshipswith all the clusters are involved in SVM. Experimental resultsreveal that this algorithm based on T-Test-SVM combinationachieves a remarkable recognition performance for childrenabnormal gait analysis with reduced Computational cost.Keywords
Abnormal Gait Analysis, Support Vector Machine(SVM), Gait Data Classification, T-Test
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
GAIT analysis is very significant for early diagnosis of gaitdiseases and treatment assessment. Doctors in earlier daysused to diagnose gait diseases manually with the help of certain graphs generated by the gait analysis system, withwhich only vague clues which may or may not reflect thereality were obtained. In most cases, doctors had differentviews of opinion by interpreting these curves. As machine based learning technology has developed, it has gained muchinterest in gait analysis, which is of great support to doctorsfor more reliable and accurate diagnosis of a disease. A Gaitanalysis is a systematic study of human motion. i.e., walking,running, skipping and the like, which mainly concentrates onthe physical activities. Gait analysis is very much useful tocheck out the human conditions; whether normal or abnormalusing the eye and brain of the observers, augmented byinstrumentation for measuring body movements, bodymechanics and the activity of the muscles. In other words, gaitanalysis is used to assess, to plan and to treat the individualswith conditions affecting their ability to walk. There exist a lotof methods to check out these normality and abnormality onhuman gait, but SVM is found to be more suitable in terms of its efficiency [2]. Motion analysis provides large volume of gait data to describe the human motion; walking speed, jointangles, forces, and moments etc., Data like joint kinetics, jointmoments and joint powers have also been used for gaitrecognition. Also this technology is very useful for checkingthe walking pattern of children as Children under the age of 13have more chances to have different style of walking. To traceout any abnormality in children’s walk, our proposed methodtakes a key role; and with this one could diagnose any existingfault features of walking in early ages of childhood itself. Thiswill surely of great help for earlier treatment of gaitabnormality in children.An SVM method has been broadly used in gait analysis because of its remarkable learning ability, accuracy andefficiency. In this paper the SVM technique is performed byhaving a training set and test samples. The training set iscategorized into different sets of conditions, which can begrouped into two classes i.e. normality and abnormality. For this, the collection of data is very important and severalobservations are needed. The information regarding leg length,height, cadence, stride length and age are some of the featureswhich are of great help in this gait analysis. The SVMconstructs a hyper plane or a set of hyper planes in a high or infinite dimensional space, which can be used for classification or clustering. In simple words, given a set of training examples, each with a label of belonging to one of these categories, an SVM training algorithm builds a modelthat predicts in which category a new example falls. The proposed method uses t-test-SVM for classification.Interestingly, a good separation is achieved by the hyper planethat has the largest distance to the nearest training data pointsof any class. The t-test method is used to normalize data prior to classification. In its simplest form t-test provides astatistical analysis of means of several groups and thereforecan generalize the Student's two-sample
-test to more thantwo groups.The following section of this paper is projected as follows:Section 2 discusses some of the related works done earlier ingait based classification. The proposed
-test SVM gaitclassification method is described in Section 3. Section 4illustrates the performance Analysis and Section 5 concludesthe paper with directions for future work.
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
II.
 
RE
LATED
 
WORK The study of human gait has created much interest in manyapplication areas including biomechanics, clinical analysis,computer animation and biometrics. As a result manyresearches emerged in recent years and of which, a few studiesrelated to Gait classification are noted herewith.C. Bauckhage et al., [13] well thought-out about automaticgait analysis as a means to deduce if an observed walking pattern appears to be normal or not. When compared to mostcontributions to visual gait analysis, the problem dealt with the paper requires a representation that abstracts from individualgait characteristics but allows for the classification of gaitacross individuals. Addressing this requirement, the author  presented a homeomorphism between 2D lattices and shapesthat enables a robust vector space embedding of silhouettes.Sampling apt lattice points allows to roughly track themovement of limbs without requiring any limb recognitionstrategy. Combining shape representations obtained fromseveral frames into lager feature vectors provides temporalcontext for the classification task. Experimental results exposea complete knowledge that gait classification using supportvector machines yields excellent accuracy. Temporal filteringof the results of classification in further improvements of thereliability of the presented framework, because it lessens theeffect of sporadic misclassifications.A.H. Khandokerl et al., [3] demonstrated the effectivenessof wavelet based multi scale correlation exponents of MFC asfeatures for automated screening an individual subject of  proper balance control as being within healthy ranges, or having high enough risk to be categorized as a falls risk or afaller by using SVM. Findings of that study were based on asmall sample of impaired subjects, compared to a relativelysmall sample of healthy peers. Therefore, further validation of the relative risk estimation task is suggested in a larger, morediverse sample of healthy and balance impaired falls risk inelderly adults, which may subsequently lead us to make morerobust automated diagnostic model of falls risk estimation.The significance of this study is that it provides an earlyestimation of relative falls risk in the elderly that holds great potential for indicating balance improving interventions toreduce their relative risk of falls.Jian Ni et al., [17] had a look about gait recognition, whichis simulated in the small and medium-scale gait database.Higher recognition rate and faster recognition speed of thealgorithm are verified. The reason that this algorithm obtainssuperior test results is: The paper adopts support vector machine based on hybrid kernel function. This method makesthat the SVM model has better generalization ability. In themethod of parameter selection, the text uses the objectivefunction and combines OPS algorithm to select the best kernel parameter. The way combines the advantages of objectivefunction and PSO algorithm to optimize SVM parameters. Itsignificantly improves the optimization speed, at the sametime obtains a good optimization effect.J.H. Yoo et al., [18] had described an automated gaitrecognition system using back propagation neural network algorithm. Gait is the most common human motion, and each person appears to have his or her own characteristic gait pattern. To identify the human gait, a total of 27 parametersare considered as gait features. By calculating a classseparability of the given feature, only 10 important features for classifying the gait are selected from these feature sets. Then,the enhanced back-propagation neural network algorithm isapplied to the SOTON database, and recognition rate of 90%for 30 subjects is accomplished. The results achieved give promising performance and higher recognition rates than thoseof an earlier gait recognition approach.Ju Han et al., [19] proposed a new spatio-temporal gaitrepresentation, called the Gait Energy Image (GEI), for individual recognition by gait. Different from other gaitrepresentations which consider gait as a sequence of templates(poses), GEI represents human motion sequence in a singleimage while preserving temporal information. To overcomethe limitation of training templates, a simple model is proposed for simulating distortion in synthetic templates and astatistical gait feature fusion approach for human recognition by gait. Experimental results show that a) GEI is an effectiveand efficient gait representation and b) the proposedrecognition approach achieves highly competitive performance with respect to the published major gaitrecognition approaches. This paper presents a methodical andcomprehensive gait recognition approach, which can work justas fine as other complex published techniques in terms of effectiveness of performance while providing all theadvantages associated with the computational efficiency for real-world applications.Shakhnarovich et al. combined the face and MV-based gait.The front face was captured by one camera and the side-viewof the person was captured by another camera. Face-alone,gait-alone and combined face and gait recognition rates were80%, 87%, and 91%, respectively. Zhou et al. [21] used asingle camera to capture both face and gait. Recognition ratesfor face and gait separately were 64.3% and 85.7%, a singlerespectively. Conversely, when they were combined, therecognition rate increased up to 100% [23]. In [22], WS-basedgait recognition was combined with speaker verification.Performance proved to be appreciably better in a noisyenvironment, compared to when speaker verification was usedalone. The EER was in the range of 2%-12%, less than half of the EER of individual modalities. In this group, gait iscaptured using a video-camera from distance. Video andimage processing techniques are employed to extract gaitfeatures for recognition purposes.BenAbdelkader et al. [25] used stride and cadence for  person identification and verification. Johnson and Bobick [26] extracted static body parameters such as the height, thedistance between head and pelvis, the maximum distance between pelvis and feet, and the distance between feet, and
108http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, 2010
used them for recognition. Most of the MV related gaitrecognition algorithms are based on the human silhouette [27,28]. That is the image background is detached and thesilhouette of the person is extracted and analyzed for recognition, For example, Liu and Sarkar [27] computed theaverage silhouettes over a gait cycle, and used the Euclideandistance between them to compute similarity.III.
 
METHODOLOGY
The block diagram of the proposed system is shown inFigure1. After suitable preprocessing, the Salient GaitFeatures are extracted from the possible Gait Signatures.These Gait features are then subjected to
-test normalizationand subsequently to SVM Classifier.
Figure1: Proposed Architecture
 A. Statistical Methods for Gait Feature Selection & Normalization
The main objective of feature selection is to discover a subsetof features, satisfying certain criteria. In pattern recognition,recognition metric will be the classification accuracy or inversely the classification error. But direct minimization of the classification error cannot be analytically performed, so awide range of alternative statistics that are easier to evaluateare performed. The typical measure used in the gait featureselection is introduced as follows:
1.
 
T-Test 
The t-test finds whether the means of two groups arestatistically dissimilar from each other. This analysis isappropriate to compare the means of two groups, andespecially appropriate for the analysis of the two-grouprandomized experimental design.The t-score (TS) [31] of feature i is defined as follows:Where,There are k classes.is the maximum of all k. C
refers to class k that includes
 
, samples is the expression value of feature i in sample jis the mean expression value in class k for feature i. wheren is the total number of samples. x
i
is the general mean valuefor feature i. S
i
is pooled within-class standard deviation for feature i. In fact, the TS used at this point is a t-statistic between the centroid of a specific class and the overallcentroid of all the classes. Another possible model for TScould be a t-statistic between the centroid of a specific classand the centroid of all the other classes.Two samples are given as input to the T-Test. The paired t-test determines whether input features differ from each other in a significant way under the assumptions that the paireddifferences are independent and identically normallydistributed. This gives a clear view for Abnormal GaitAnalysis
2.
 
PCA (Principal Component Analysis)
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) involves amathematical process that transforms a number of possiblycorrelated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelatedvariables called principal components. The fallouts of a PCAare usually discussed in terms of component scores andloadings.PCA is the simplest of the proper eigenvector-basedmultivariate analyses. Often, its process can be thought of asrevealing the internal structure of the data in a way which bestexplains the variance in the data. If a dataset (multivariate) isvisualized as a set of coordinates in a high-dimensional dataspace (1 axis per variable), PCA supplies the user with alower-dimensional picture, a "shadow" of this object whenviewed from its (in some sense) most informative viewpoint.For a data matrix,with zero empirical mean (the empiricalmean of the distribution has been subtracted from the data set),where each row represents a different repetition of thePreprocessingGait ImagesDeriving GaitSignatureGait FeatureExtractionStatistical based FeatureSelectionFeature
  NormalizationSVM Classifier 
  Normal/Abnormal
109http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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