(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August2010
G.Multipath Routing in Multicasting Protocols
Based on the type of operation, multicast protocols foradhoc networks are broadly classified into two types: Source-initiated protocols and receiver-initiated protocols. There existscertain other multicast protocols such as MCEDAR  andAM Route  which may not strictly fall under the above twotypes. Multicast Routing Protocols are of great interest as thedemand for such communication is on the rise. MultipathMulticast Routing Algorithm ‘MRPM’ quick distributeddynamic algorithm can manage network resources efficiently.Multi-Flow Real-Time Transport protocol ‘MRTP’  isanother example of a mesh-based adhoc-based protocol thatoffers multipath routing for multicast application. MRTP ismotivated by the observations of effective path diversity incombating transmission errors in adhoc networks and effectivedata partitioning techniques in improving the queueingperformance of real-time traffic. The simulation results showperformance improvement in lost packets per frame and bettermanagement.Multi-Objective Multipath Routing Algorithm for MulticastFlows ‘MMRAM’  proposes a multi-objective trafficengineering scheme using different distribution trees tomulticast several flows. MMRAM is an attractive candidate forMulti Protocol Label Switching ‘MPLS’. This multi-treerouting protocol uses a multicast transmission with loadbalancing.
H.Multipath routing in Security Protocols
The existence of multiple paths between nodes in an Adhocnetwork is exploited to increase the robustness of the dataconfidentiality . The proposed algorithm is tested againsttime for intrusion defection and robustness.
TABLE I. ADHOCROUTINGPROTOCOLSDISCUSSEDROTOCOLSDSRReactiveMSRReactiveAODMDVReactiveAODVReactiveDSDVProactiveTERAProactiveHMFRHierarZRPHybridANT.NETHybridHSRHierarZHLSHierarCGSRHierarMLARGeogMPSRPowerMRPMMulticastMRTPMulticastMMRAMMulticastMTSSecurity
Another multipath routing algorithm for data securityenhancement, Multipath TCP security ‘MTS’, is discussed in. In MTS, the source node chooses the available routesadaptivity rather than testing the ‘Stored routes’ one by oneexhaustively. Compared to AODV and DSR, MTS has a betternumber of participating nodes and highest interception ratio.The average end-to-end delay between MTS, AODV and DSRshows that beyond speeds of 1.7m/s, MTS delay drops rapidlyand performs better in respect to the other two routingprotocols. The protocols discussed are tabulated in Table 1.
Multipath routing was the main focus of this paper and weinvestigated its effects of multipath routing in variety of protocols. In all these, performance enhancements wereobserved and promising results pointed to the betterdeployment of the schemes when multipath routing is used.R
EFERENCESSiva Ram Murthy. C and Manoj B.S, “Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,Architectures and Protocols”, Perason Edition Inc, 2005.Charles E. Perlins, “Ad Hoc Networking”, Addision-Wesley 2
Printing 2004.Elizabath. M and Belding. R, “ Routing Approaches in Mobile Ad-HocNetworks”, 2004.Lei Wang, Lian Fang Zhang, Yantai Shu and Miao Dong. “ MultipathSource Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, CCECE 2000, 7-10March 2000.Mahesh. K and Marina S.R, “On-demand Multipath Distance VectorRouting in Adhoc Networks”, 9
International Conference on 11-14 Nov2001.Charles Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Ventor Routing for Mobile Computers”, inProceedings of the Symposium on Communication Architectures andProtocols, ACM SIGCOMM, 1994.Frederick Ducatelle, Gianni Di Caro and Luce Maria Gambardella, “AntAgents for Hbride Multipath Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”,Second Annuml conference on Wireless On-demand Network systemsand services, 19-21 Jan 2005, WONS 2005.A.Iwata, Chiang C.C, Pei.G, Gerla.M and Chen T.W, “Scalable RoutingStrategies for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, IEEE Journal on SelectedAreas in Communications, Vol 17, No.8, pp 1369-1379, August 1999.Chen.T.W and Gerla.M “ Global State Routing: A New Routing Schemefor AdHoc Wireless Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE, ICC 1998, pp171-175, June 1998.Y.Ko and N.H,Vaidya, “Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in MobileAdHoc Networks”, Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM 1998, pp 66-75,October 1998.Soumendra Nanda, Robert S.Gray, “Spatial Multipath Location AidedAdHoc Routing”, Computer Communications and Networks, 2004.ICCCN 2004 Proceedings, 13
International Conference.Liao W.H, Tseng Y.C and Sheu J.P, “GRID: A Fully Location-AwareRouting Protocol for Mobile AdHoc Networks”, TelecommunicationSystems, Vol 18, No.1, pp 37-60, 2001.Singh.S, Woo.M and Ragavendra. C.S, “Power-Aware Routing inMobile AdHoc Networks”, Proceedings of ACM MOBICOM 1998, PP181-190, October 1998.Sushant Jain, “Energy Aware communication in AdHoc Networks”,Technical Report, UW-CSE 03-06-03.Anand Prabhu Subramanian, Anto A.J, Janani Vasudevan andNarayanasamy .P, “Multipath Power Sensitive Routing Protocol forMobile AdHoc Networks”, WONS 2004, Madonna di Campiglio, Italy,Jan 2004.Sinha.P, Sivakumar.R and Bharghavan.V, “MCEDAR: Multicast CoreExtruction Distributed AdHoc Routing”, Proceeding of IEEE WCNC1999, pp 1313-1317, Sep 1999.Bommaiah.E, Lin.M McAuley.A and Talpade.R, “AMRoute: AdHocMulticast Routing Protocol”, Internet Draft, draft-talpade-manet-amroute-oo.txt, August 1998.