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Honey-Bee Mating based Bound Time Approach for Energy minimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Honey-Bee Mating based Bound Time Approach for Energy minimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Published by ijcsis
In Wireless Sensor Network, dynamic cluster based routing protocol approach is widely used. Such practiced approach, quickly depletes the energy of cluster heads and induces the execution of frequent re-election algorithm. This repeated cluster head re-election algorithm increases the number of advertisement messages which in turn depletes the energy of overall sensor network. Here, we proposed the Bound Time and Honey Bee Mating Approach (BT-HBMA) that reduces the cluster set up communication overhead and elects the stand by node in advance for current cluster head which has the capability to withstand for many rounds Our proposed BT-HBMA method uses the Honey bee mating behaviour in electing the stand by node for current cluster head. This approach really outperforms the other methods in achieving reduced number of re election and maintaining high energy nodes between the rounds.
In Wireless Sensor Network, dynamic cluster based routing protocol approach is widely used. Such practiced approach, quickly depletes the energy of cluster heads and induces the execution of frequent re-election algorithm. This repeated cluster head re-election algorithm increases the number of advertisement messages which in turn depletes the energy of overall sensor network. Here, we proposed the Bound Time and Honey Bee Mating Approach (BT-HBMA) that reduces the cluster set up communication overhead and elects the stand by node in advance for current cluster head which has the capability to withstand for many rounds Our proposed BT-HBMA method uses the Honey bee mating behaviour in electing the stand by node for current cluster head. This approach really outperforms the other methods in achieving reduced number of re election and maintaining high energy nodes between the rounds.

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09/12/2012

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Honey-Bee Mating based Bound Time Approachfor Energy minimization in Wireless SensorNetworks
J Senthilkumar 
 
Assistant Professor/ITSona College of TechnologySalem, Tamilnadu, INDIA jsenthil10@gmail.com
Dr.R.Lakshmipathi
Professor/EEESt.Peters Engineering CollegeChennai, Tamilnadu, INDIAdrrlakshmipathi@yahoo.com
V.Mohanraj Y.Suresh
Assistant Professor/IT Assistant Professor/ITSona College of Technology Sona College of TechnologySalem, Tamilnadu, INDIA Salem, Tamilnadu, INDIArajkrishcounty@gmail.com shuresh_22@yahoo.co.in
 Abstract 
 —In Wireless Sensor Network, dynamic cluster basedrouting protocol approach is widely used. Such practicedapproach, quickly depletes the energy of cluster heads andinduces the execution of frequent re-election algorithm. Thisrepeated cluster head re-election algorithm increases the numberof advertisement messages which in turn depletes the energy of overall sensor network. Here, we proposed the Bound Time andHoney Bee Mating Approach (BT-HBMA) that reduces thecluster set up communication overhead and elects the stand bynode in advance for current cluster head which has the capabilityto withstand for many roundsOur proposed BT-HBMA method uses the Honey bee matingbehaviour in electing the stand by node for current cluster head.This approach really outperforms the other methods in achievingreduced number of re election and maintaining high energynodes between the rounds.
Keywords-
Cluster based Routing; Wireless sensor network;Honey Bee mating; Bound Time
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are formed by a set of nodes that gather information and forward it to a sink. Theyare formed by small, inexpensive and resource limited devicesthat can interact with the environment and communicate in awireless manner with other devices [1] WSNs present a newchallenge research problem due to their high flexibility tosupport several real-world applications. The core operation of wireless sensor network is to collect and process data at thenetwork nodes, and transmit the necessary data to the basestation for further analysis and processing. Due to largenetwork size, limited power supply, and inaccessible remoteenvironment, the WSN-based protocols are different from thetraditional wireless protocols [2].Currently there are severalenergy efficient communication models and protocols that aredesigned for specific applications and topologies.LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) isone of the most referenced protocols in the sensor networksarea [3],[4],[5]. In LEACH and other routing protocols, whencurrent cluster head changes due to self destruction or energyloss, increases the overhead, in turn leading to higher energyconsumption. This is one of the worrying drawbacks. A possible solution which is proposed in this paper is the use of the bound time to reduce set-up communication overhead.During this bound time, sensor nodes receive advertisementmessages and from this, node determines multi-route for transmission and consider only the message with the minimumnumber of hops and stand by cluster heads are elected.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section II,we review the related work. In Section III, describes Honey beestructure and modeling. The proposed method of BT –HBMAalgorithm for cluster formation is described in Section IV. InSection V, We presented the Simulation results. Finally SectionVI, concludes the paper.II
 
RELATED
 
WORK Hierarchical or Cluster –based routing, originally proposedin wire line networks, are well-known techniques with specialadvantages related to scalability and efficient communication.As such, the concept of hierarchical routing is also utilized to perform energy efficient routing in WSNs. In a hierarchicalarchitecture, higher nodes can be used to process and send theinformation while low energy nodes can be used to performthe sensing in the proximity of the target. This means thatcreation of Clusters and assigning special tasks to cluster-heads can greatly contribute to overall system scalability,lifetime, and energy efficiency.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010134http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Hierarchical routing is an efficient way to lower energyconsumption within a cluster and by performing dataaggregation and fusion in order to decrease the number of transmitted messages to the base station.Heinzelman[4] introduced a hierarchical clusteringalgorithm for sensor networks, called Low Energy AdaptiveClustering Hierarchy(LEACH). LEACH is a cluster based protocol, which includes distributed cluster formation. Theoperation of LEACH is split into two phases, the set-up phaseand steady state phase. During the set-up phase, the clustersare created and cluster heads are elected. LEACH randomlyselects a few sensor nodes as cluster-heads and broadcast anadvertisement message to the entire network declaring thatthey are the new cluster heads. Every node receiving theadvertisement decides to which cluster they wish to belong based on the signal strength of the received message. Thesensor node sends a message to register with the cluster-headof their choice. Based on a TDMA approach, the cluster headassigns the time slot to registered node for sending the data.During the steady-state phase, sensor nodes can starttransmitting data to their respective cluster-head. The cluster head applies aggregation functions to compress the data beforetransmission to the sink. After a predetermined period of timespent on the steady-state phase, the network enters the set-up phase again and starts a new round of creating clusters.Although LEACH is able to increase the network lifetime,there are still a number of issues about the assumptions used inthis protocol. LEACH assumes that all nodes can transmit withenough power to reach the base station if needed and that eachnode has computational power to support different MAC protocols. Therefore, it is not applicable to networks deployedin larger regions. It also assumes that nodes always have datato send, and nodes located close to each other have correlateddata. It is not obvious how the number of the predeterminedcluster-head is going to be uniformly distributed through thenetwork. Therefore, there is the possibility that the electedcluster head will be concentrated in one part of the network.Hence, some nodes will not have any cluster heads in their area.Lindsey and Raghavendra[6],[7] proposed an enhancementover LEACH protocol. The protocol, called Power-EfficientGathering in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS), is anear optimal chain –based protocol. It achieved the performance through the elimination of the overhead caused by dynamic cluster formation and through decreasing thenumber of transmissions and reception by using dataaggregation. Although the clustering overhead is avoided, stillrequires dynamic topology adjustments.This paper provides a protocol with the same underlying benefits as LEACH and PEGASIS and reduces the number of set-up messages required which in turn increases the network lifetime.III
 
H
ONEY
-B
EE
C
OLONY
S
TRUCTURE
 A honey-bee colony typically consists of a single egglaying long-lived queen, anywhere from zero to severalthousand drones (depending on the season) and usually10,000 to 60,000 workers [8]. The colony can be founded intwo different ways. In “independent founding” the colonystarts with one or more reproductive females that construct thenest, lay the eggs, and feed the larvas. The first group of  broods is reared alone until they take over the work of thecolony. Subsequently, division of labor takes place and thequeen specializes in egg laying and the workers in brood care .Another founding method is called “swarming” in which anew colony is founded by a single queen or more, along with agroup of workers from the original colony.A colony of bees is a large family of bees living in one bee-hive. A bee hive is like a big city with many “sections of the town”. The queen is the most important member of thehive because she is the one that keeps the hive going by producing new queen and worker bees. With the help of approximately 18 males (drones), the queen bee will mate withmultiple drones one time in her life over several days. Thesperm from each drone is planted inside a pouch in her body.She uses the stored sperms to fertilize the eggs. Whether ahoneybee will become a queen, a drone, or a worker,depends on whether the queen fertilizes an egg. Since she isthe only bee in the colony that has fully developed ovaries,the queen is the only bee that can fertilize the egg. Queens andworkers come from fertilized eggs and drones fromunfertilized eggs.Only the queen bee is fed “royal jelly,” which is a milky-white colored jelly-like substance. “Nurse bees” secrete thisnourishing food from their glands, and feed it to their queen.The diet of royal jelly makes the queen bee bigger than anyother bees in the hive. A queen bee may live up to 5 or 6years, whereas worker bees and drones never live more than 6months. There are usually several hundred drones that livewith the queen and worker bees. Mother nature has given thedrones just one task which is to give the queen some sperm.After the mating process, the drones die. As the nights turncolder and winter knocks the door, the drones still in the hiveare forced out of the hive by worker bees. It is a sad thing, butthe hive will not have enough food if the drones stay.Queens represent the main reproductive individuals whichare specialized in eggs laying [9]. Drones are the fathers of thecolony. They are haploid and act to amplify their mothers’genome without altering their genetic composition, exceptthrough mutation. Workers are specialized in brood care andsometimes lay eggs. Broods arise either from fertilized or unfertilized eggs. The former represent potential queens or workers, whereas the latter represent prospective drones.The mating process occurs during mating-flights far fromthe nest. A mating- flight starts with a dance where the dronesfollow the queen and mate with her in the air. In a typicalmating-flight, each queen mates with seven to twenty drones.In each mating, sperm reaches the spermatheca andaccumulates there to form the genetic pool of the colony. Eachtime a queen lays fertilized eggs, she retrieves at random amixture of the sperms accumulated in the spermatheca tofertilize the egg. Insemination ends with the eventual death of the drone, and the queen receiving the “mating sign.” Thequeen mates multiple times but the drone inevitably only once.These features make bees-mating the most spectacular matingamong insects.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010135http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
 A.
 
 Honey-bees modeling 
The mating–flight may be considered as a set of transitions ina state-space (the environment) where the queen moves between the different states in some speed and mates with thedrone encountered at each state probabilistically. At the startof the flight, the queen is initialized with some energy contentand returns to her nest when her energy is within somethreshold from zero or when her spermatheca is full.In developing the algorithm, the functionality of workers isrestricted to brood care and therefore, each worker may berepresented as a heuristic which acts to improve and/or takecare of a set of broods (i.e., as feeding the future queen withroyal jelly). A drone mates with a queen probabilisticallyusing an annealing function as[10]:Prob (
Q, D
) =
( )
 s f 
)(exp
(1)where Prob (
Q, D
) is the probability of adding the sperm of drone
 D
to the spermatheca of queen
Q
(that is, the probabilityof a successful mating); ∆(
 f 
) is the absolute difference between the fitness of 
 D
(i.e.ƒ(
 D
)) and the fitness of Q(i.e.
 (
Q
)); and
(
) is the speed of the queen at time t. It isapparent that this function
 
acts as an annealing function,where the probability of mating is high when both the queen isstill in the start of her mating–flight and therefore her speed ishigh, or when the fitness of the drone is as good as thequeen’s. After each transition in space, the queen’s speed,
(
), and energy,
 E 
(
), decay using the following equations:
(
t +
1) =
a
× S (
) (2)
  E 
(
t +
1) =
 E 
(
t)
-
γ
(3)Where
a is
a factor 
[0
 ,
1] and
γ
is the amount of energyreduction after each transition. Thus, an Honey-Bees MatingOptimization (HBMO) algorithm may be constructed with thefollowing five main stages [11]:1) The algorithm starts with the mating–flight, where a queen(best solution) selects drones probabilistically to form thespermatheca (list of drones). A drone is then selected fromthe list at random for the creation of broods.2) Creation of new broods (trial solutions) by crossoverringthe drones’ genotypes with the queen’s.3) Use of workers (heuristics) to conduct local search on broods (trial solutions).4) Adaptation of workers’ fitness based on the amount of improvement achieved on broods.5) Replacement of weaker queens by fitter broods.IV.
 
PROPOSED
 
METHOD
 A.
 
 Bound Time (BT) Routing Protocol 
The main objective of our BT approach is to minimize theset-up communication overhead, whenever current cluster head changes. These changes are due to cluster head failuresor when its energy level approaches a certain threshold value.During the bound-time, sensor node receives single multi- purpose message and from this the node starts to determinethe following 1) possible routes from the cluster head to sensor node 2) learns the minimum number of hops to reach theselected cluster head.3) Stand by nodes are chosen for next tocurrent cluster head. Hence, this single multi-purposeadvertisement message can be used for both reducing the set-up communication overhead and fault tolerant, thus makes our  protocol more energy efficient.The operation of the proposed routing protocol can be splitinto two phases: the role determination phase and the datatransfer phase
 B.
 
 Role Determination Phase
During this phase, cluster heads are selected and clustersare formed. At the start up, base station randomly selects somedesired percentage of nodes as cluster heads and broadcastsselected information to the network. On receiving the broadcasted information, each node checks its status whether it has been selected as cluster head or not. If yes, it starts anew cluster formation by broadcasting an advertisementmessage. Otherwise, it forwards the message to its neighbors.Every cluster head creates an advertisement message whichhas the number of hops count to zero and broadcast it to itsneighbors. If a node already belongs to another cluster for which the number of hops to reach the current belongingcluster is less than newly received broad cast then it ignoresthe received message.The bound time of a node starts when it accepts anadvertisement message. When the bound-time is still valid, thenode caches the received message and waits for other possibleadvertisement. In this way, it collects all possible alternative paths to chosen cluster head. All the sensor nodes consider themessage with minimum number of hops count (shortest route)as the best route. When route fails, an alternate route can beimmediately used without delays or degradation of QoS.Whenthe bound-time reaches zero, a route is established withshortest route and increases the number of hops count by onein the retained message and broadcasts it to its nearby nodes.After bound time expires, all sensor nodes who receive theadvertisements message are candidate for stand by node totheir respective cluster head. All the sensor nodes whoexpressed their willingness are collected in the stand by nodelist and stored in the cluster head. This stand by node list isused as input to our proposed Honey mating algorithm whichis discussed in next section. In the meantime, data transfer  phase is started for conducting data transfer in the network.The current energy of the current cluster head is polled inevery round time. When the current cluster head energy isdepleted to near specified threshold energy level, our proposedHoney Bee Mating algorithm is triggered to find the best stand by node for current cluster head from the stand by node list.When current cluster head about to dead completely, the beststand by node selected using our approach replaces the currentcluster head. This newly elected cluster head can withstand for many rounds and there by reduces the number of re-election.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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