The mating–flight may be considered as a set of transitions ina state-space (the environment) where the queen moves between the different states in some speed and mates with thedrone encountered at each state probabilistically. At the startof the flight, the queen is initialized with some energy contentand returns to her nest when her energy is within somethreshold from zero or when her spermatheca is full.In developing the algorithm, the functionality of workers isrestricted to brood care and therefore, each worker may berepresented as a heuristic which acts to improve and/or takecare of a set of broods (i.e., as feeding the future queen withroyal jelly). A drone mates with a queen probabilisticallyusing an annealing function as:Prob (
t s f
(1)where Prob (
) is the probability of adding the sperm of drone
to the spermatheca of queen
(that is, the probabilityof a successful mating); ∆(
) is the absolute difference between the fitness of
)) and the fitness of Q(i.e.
) is the speed of the queen at time t. It isapparent that this function
acts as an annealing function,where the probability of mating is high when both the queen isstill in the start of her mating–flight and therefore her speed ishigh, or when the fitness of the drone is as good as thequeen’s. After each transition in space, the queen’s speed,
), and energy,
), decay using the following equations:
× S (
is the amount of energyreduction after each transition. Thus, an Honey-Bees MatingOptimization (HBMO) algorithm may be constructed with thefollowing five main stages :1) The algorithm starts with the mating–flight, where a queen(best solution) selects drones probabilistically to form thespermatheca (list of drones). A drone is then selected fromthe list at random for the creation of broods.2) Creation of new broods (trial solutions) by crossoverringthe drones’ genotypes with the queen’s.3) Use of workers (heuristics) to conduct local search on broods (trial solutions).4) Adaptation of workers’ fitness based on the amount of improvement achieved on broods.5) Replacement of weaker queens by fitter broods.IV.
Bound Time (BT) Routing Protocol
The main objective of our BT approach is to minimize theset-up communication overhead, whenever current cluster head changes. These changes are due to cluster head failuresor when its energy level approaches a certain threshold value.During the bound-time, sensor node receives single multi- purpose message and from this the node starts to determinethe following 1) possible routes from the cluster head to sensor node 2) learns the minimum number of hops to reach theselected cluster head.3) Stand by nodes are chosen for next tocurrent cluster head. Hence, this single multi-purposeadvertisement message can be used for both reducing the set-up communication overhead and fault tolerant, thus makes our protocol more energy efficient.The operation of the proposed routing protocol can be splitinto two phases: the role determination phase and the datatransfer phase
Role Determination Phase
During this phase, cluster heads are selected and clustersare formed. At the start up, base station randomly selects somedesired percentage of nodes as cluster heads and broadcastsselected information to the network. On receiving the broadcasted information, each node checks its status whether it has been selected as cluster head or not. If yes, it starts anew cluster formation by broadcasting an advertisementmessage. Otherwise, it forwards the message to its neighbors.Every cluster head creates an advertisement message whichhas the number of hops count to zero and broadcast it to itsneighbors. If a node already belongs to another cluster for which the number of hops to reach the current belongingcluster is less than newly received broad cast then it ignoresthe received message.The bound time of a node starts when it accepts anadvertisement message. When the bound-time is still valid, thenode caches the received message and waits for other possibleadvertisement. In this way, it collects all possible alternative paths to chosen cluster head. All the sensor nodes consider themessage with minimum number of hops count (shortest route)as the best route. When route fails, an alternate route can beimmediately used without delays or degradation of QoS.Whenthe bound-time reaches zero, a route is established withshortest route and increases the number of hops count by onein the retained message and broadcasts it to its nearby nodes.After bound time expires, all sensor nodes who receive theadvertisements message are candidate for stand by node totheir respective cluster head. All the sensor nodes whoexpressed their willingness are collected in the stand by nodelist and stored in the cluster head. This stand by node list isused as input to our proposed Honey mating algorithm whichis discussed in next section. In the meantime, data transfer phase is started for conducting data transfer in the network.The current energy of the current cluster head is polled inevery round time. When the current cluster head energy isdepleted to near specified threshold energy level, our proposedHoney Bee Mating algorithm is triggered to find the best stand by node for current cluster head from the stand by node list.When current cluster head about to dead completely, the beststand by node selected using our approach replaces the currentcluster head. This newly elected cluster head can withstand for many rounds and there by reduces the number of re-election.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500