automatic and semiautomatic for segmentation of brain intodifferent tissues, including MS lesions. These approachesinclude a variety of methods such as statistical, fuzzy, neuralnetworks, and fuzzy neural networks.Kamber et al.developed a brain tissue model forsegmentation of MR images of patients with MS disease. Theoffered model was three-dimensional, voxel based, whichprovided
probabilities for white matter, gray matterand CSF.The survey by Clarke
of segmentation methods for MRimages  describes many useful image processing techniquesand discusses the important question of validation. Thevarious image processing techniques used for segmenting thebrain can be divided into several groups: those required toperform a crude threshold-based extraction of the brain,followed by refinement of brain contours; statistical methodsfor brain segmentation, and region growing methods.
The work by M. Kass, A. Witkins & D. Terzopoulos  in1988 is the basis for the active contour model, the Snakealgorithm. The work by Mathews Jacob, Thierry Blu andMichael unser  presents different solutions for improvingspline based snakes, and demonstrates the minimum curvatureinterpolation property used as an argument to get rid of theexplicit smoothness constraint.The work of El Naqa et al  proposes a variational methodsbased on multivalued level set deformable models forsimultaneous 2D or 3D segmentation of multimodality imagesor multiple image sets from the same modality.A multidimensional segmentation and filtering methodologyfor accurate blood flow velocity field reconstruction fromphase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC MRI)developed and validated byKartik S. Sundareswaran, DavidH. Frakes et.al.Yuri Boykov, Olga Veksler and Ramin Zabih  proposes anexpansion algorithm that finds a labeling within a knownfactor of the global minimum, while swap algorithm handlesmore general energy functions. Both algorithms allowimportant cases of discontinuity preserving energies for imagerestoration, stereo and motion.Saracoglu
 modeled the problem using a methodconsisting of three steps: image tessellation, clustering, andclassification. The image was tessellated into regions withsimilar properties using a region growing approach(tessellation step).Based on the “average” color information of the regions, clustering is performed.A novel method for segmentation and classification of M-FISH chromosome images is presented by Petros S. Karvelis,Alexandros T. Tzallas et al.. The segmentation is based onthe multichannel watershed transform in order to defineregions of similar spatial and spectral characteristics. Then, aBayes classifier task-specific on region classification, isapplied.
The combination of the multichannel segmentationand the region-based classification is found to improve theoverall classification accuracy compared to pixel-by-pixelapproaches
A very powerful segmentation method that has been widelyused in image segmentation problems is the watershedtransform (WT) –. Since its original application ongrayscale images , , a very attractive computationalform has been derived  and extended to color images .An extensive review of the watershed algorithms can be foundin .The watershed transform presents some advantagesover other developed segmentation methods.1) The watershed lines form closed and connected regions,where edge based techniques usually define disconnectedboundaries that need postprocessing to produce closed regions.2) The watershed lines always correspond to obvious contoursof objects which appear in the image.The main problem of over-segmentation, can be usuallyovercome by the use of preprocessing or postprocessing,producing a segmentation that better reflects the arrangementof objects within the image.III.W
The proposed system starts with the original image andwatershed transform of the image's gradient modulus is usedfor segmentation purpose.The validation is done comparing our segmentation with thephysician’s delineation. Fig 1 shows the flowchart of theproposed method.
Watershed Based on Dissimilarity Measures
The watershed transform definitions can be slightly modifiedin such a way that it produces a segmentation according todifferent path based criteria. For image segmentation purposesthe watershed transform is computed on the image's gradientmodulus, usually the morphological gradient. The estimationof the gradient has thus also an importance for the quality of the segmentation. A first extension of the classical watershedtransform of the gradient image is based on the localdissimilarity between neighbor pixels. This approach, calledwatershed by dissimilarity was originally proposed by Pardas and Lotufo et.al in .
Given a pixel adjacency graph G = (V;E;W), we considerthe following edges weights mappinge
E , w
= (1/d(i,j ).|pi—pj) |+1)where i and j are two nodes of the graph, pi and pj are the greylevel values of neighbor pixels of the image and d(i, j) is thedistance between the two pixels.These edges weights represent the local estimation of theimage's gradient modulus. Instead of computing themorphological gradient of the image at each pixel, the gradientis here estimated "between" the pixels. This weight mapespecially provides a better detection of thin contrastedobjects.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010143http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500