(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010
2AODV, DSDV and DSR in terms of throughput, delay, droprate.III. PROTOCOL SPECIFICATIONThis section gives the small presentation of two protocols we evaluate in this paper.
The Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)routing protocol is designed for use in ad-hoc mobilenetworks. AODV is a reactive protocol: the routes are createdonly when they are needed. It uses traditional routing tables,one entry per destination, and sequence numbers to determinewhether routing information is up-to-date and to preventrouting loops.An important feature of AODV is the maintenanceof time-based states in each node: a routingentry not recentlyused is expired. In case of a route is broken the neighbourscan be notified. Route discovery is based on query and replycycles, and route information is stored in all intermediatenodes along the route in the form of route table entries. Thefollowing control packets are used: routing request message(RREQ) is broadcasted by a node requiring a route to another node, routing reply message (RREP) is unicasted back to thesource of RREQ, and route error message (RERR) is sent tonotify other nodes of the loss of the link. HELLO messagesare used for detecting and monitoring links to neighbours
B. Gossiping & AODV+G
The basic gossiping protocol is simple. A sourcesends the routing request with probability 1. When a nodefirst receives a routing request, with probability
it broadcasts the request to its neighbors and with probability 1 –
discards the request; if the node receives the same routrequest again, it is discarded. Thus, a node broadcasts a givenroute request at most once.  proposes GOSSIP(
anextension to the basic gossiping, and suggests that:A node broadcasts with probability 1 for the first
hops before continuing to gossip with probability
If a node with n neighbors receives a message and does not broadcast it, but then does not receive the message from atleast
neighbors within a reasonable timeout period, it broadcasts the message to all its neighbors .Hass et al. implements GOSSIP(
in Ad HocOn-Demand Distance Vector protocol (AODV) , a typicaland well-studied on-demond routing algorithm suited for mobile nodes routing in ad hoc network. We refer this gossip- based AODV as AODV+G. The experiments in  showsthat gossiping can reduce control traffic up to 35% whencompared to flooding and the most significant performance of GOSSIP is achieved by taking
1.In AODV+G, if the expanding-ring search with asmaller radius fails, rather than flooding to the wholenetwork, here GOSSIP3(.65,1,1) is used. The timeout periodof GOSSIP3 should be big enough to allow neighboringnodes to gossip. The NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME parameter of AODV is a conservative estimate of the average one hoptraversal time for packets that includes queuing delays,interrupt processing times and transfer times. GOSSIP3 is notused in the expanding-ring search with a smaller radius, sinceflooding is more efficient than gossiping for zone with smallradius because of the back-propagation effects. Thevariant of AODV that uses GOSSIP3 is called AODV+G.IV SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
A. Environment and AssumptionSimulator chosen :
The proposed algorithms are simulated on NS2(version 2.33).
NS2 is popularly used in thesimulation of routing and multicast protocols, among others,and is heavily used in ad-hoc networking research. nssupports an array of popular network protocols, offeringsimulation results for wired and wireless networks alike. Itcan be also used as limited-functionality network emulator. Itwas necessary to use available implementations of algorithmsrather than implement them freshly ourselves, as it isimportant for the acceptance of an evaluation that theimplementation used for evaluation has been scrutinized andaccepted as correct by the community. Else the evaluationresults will not be accepted as doubt will exist about thecorrectness of the implementation of the algorithms
Algorithms chosen :
Here in this paper we have selected tosimulate and evaluate the performance of AODV andAODV+G protocols. AODV is a reactive routing protocol andAODV+G is variant of AODV routing protocol withGOSSIP3. Further experiments can be built based on theresults of this project, to compare convergence time performance of algorithms within the same category as well.
The Random Waypoint model is the mostcommonly used mobility model in research community. Atevery instant, a node randomly chooses a destination andmoves towards it with a velocity chosen randomly from auniform distribution [0,V_max], where V_max is themaximum allowable velocity for every mobile node. After reaching the destination, the node stops for a duration defined by the 'pause time' parameter. After this duration, it againchooses a random destination and repeats the whole processuntil the simulation ends.
To create Mobile node Movement Scenario files, thecommand line that needs to be run under directory : ns-allinone-2.33/ns-2.33/indep-utils/cmu-scen-gen/setdest :./setdest [-n num_of_nodes] [-p pausetime] [-s maxspeed] [-tsimtime] [-x maxx] [-y maxy] > [output-file].