State Routing (OLSR), Topology Broadcast Based on ReversePath Forwarding (TBRPF), Signal Stability based Adaptiverouting (SSA), and mixed routing protocols such as the ZoneRouting Protocol (ZRP), and many others . The goal of thispaper is to propose a very useful mechanism to improveAODV-DFRP protocol
 and enhance overall ad-hoc wireless network.II.
On mobile ad
hoc wireless networks, the routedisconnection has a significant negative impact on packetdelivery. The common drawbacks and main consequences of route failures are packet dropping, end-to-end delay, andminimum throughput. These result in overall network inefficiencies. In addition, the interval time for link break detection and construction time of alternative path can be high.Therefore, many link predication studies have been proposed,recently, which focus on improving route repair in advance. In, a Predictive Preemptive approach has been proposed toroute maintenance and to avoid link breakage. The mechanismis initiated when a link is about to be broken instead of waitingfor the break to happen. This approach used the Lagrangeinterpolation mathematical model in order to estimate whetheran active route to a neighboring node will fail. When link failure is expected between a node and an upstream neighbor,the upstream neighbor itself attempts, first, to find a route tothe destination. If such route is not found within a discoveryperiod, a link failure warning is propagated via upstream nodesto sources that use this link. Source nodes invoke the routediscovery mechanism if they need a route to the destination.This approach has two drawbacks: (i) if the problem ishappened at the upstream node and not downstream, it is goingto take quite a long process to divert route. (ii) The mechanismshows that the unnecessary warning message is still sending tothe source after a certain period of time which increases thetraffic in the network.In , a new flooding mechanism is suggested to controlroute paths. The main point of the proposed scheme is to track
the destination’s location based on the beacon messages of th
emain route nodes by directional forwarding algorithm. In otherwords, each node recognizes its location through GlobalPositioning Systems (GPS) for a one-hop neighbor node, whichis at a distance of one hop from the main route, recognizes thelocation of the main route node through a beacon message.GPS has some issues; such as the cost associated with their useand that they may not work properly because of fading. Inaddition, other problems with this mechanism could be that theneed for synchronization between the internal clocks of nodes. introduces the Packet Received Time (PRT) to predictthe link status in order to avoid link breakdown on an activeroute beforehand. This approach used power measurement of received packets to predict the topological change. Thismechanism works as follows; if current signal of the receivedpacket is greater than the previous one, it indicates the link isstable and do not need prediction algorithm. But if it is weaker
than the previous received packet’s si
gnal power, thenprediction algorithm send RERR upstream to locally maintainthe route, or to the source (initial node) to establish new RREQto find a fresh route to the destination. This mechanism has acommon weakness as many other mechanisms did, namelysending an unnecessary warning messages propagating back tothe source node which again increases the traffic in thenetwork.III.
Our approach concerns an avoidance of link breakagebefore it becomes completely disconnected. The main goal of the proposed mechanism is to avoid sending an unnecessarywarning message upon link failure. In addition, it is animprovement of AODV-DFRP protocol proposed by Sayid
. However, the avoidance of the reverse route to thesender (source) is the similar objectives for both LRREQ andAODV-DFRP protocol upon link failure. This paper proposestwo mechanisms to improve the DFRP protocol. They are asfollows.
Local Route Request (LRREQ)
Upstream Notification (UN)Before we present the new proposed mechanisms, weprovide a brief introduction about how the DFRP protocolworks upon a link failure. DFRP protocol uses twomechanisms in order to predict the link breakage and takeaction before it happens. For prediction, it utilizes the link stateprediction method to collect the current link signal strengthstatus in order to detect link breakage. For local or neighborssignal status, it utilizes IEEE 802.11 of wireless standards forbeacon frames to find the node that has a stronger signalcompare to the current connection signal strength amongneighbors. Once one of those neighbors replies with positiveresponse and have both stronger signal and route to thedestination, the current-node will divert the route into thatnode.The weakness of DFRP protocol is, if none of neighborshas stronger signal strength than the current route or it does nothave a route to the destination at all, then the protocol will facea problem in order to process the data forwarding.Our new mechanism, LRREQ, uses the link state predictionmethod, as well, for predicating an active link. In addition, aLRREQ with beacon mechanism will use one hop neighbors tocollect their signal status. LRREQ mechanism uses one hoprange. After the link state predication algorithm informs thatthe link between A and B will be broken soon (Figure 1), nodeA circulates a local route request to neighbors to check signalstatus and whether there is a route to the destination as shownin Figure 2.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010183http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500