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An Improvement of Link Failure Maintenance in Ad-Hoc Wireless Network on AODV Protocol

An Improvement of Link Failure Maintenance in Ad-Hoc Wireless Network on AODV Protocol

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Published by ijcsis
In mobile ad-hoc wireless network, the link failure is a major challenge. It causes a reduction in performance and efficiency of network resources. This paper presents an enhancement to AODV-DFRP protocol. This developed protocol utilizes the link state prediction method to avoid a link failure in a different way from the existing solutions. The paper focuses only the link failure caused by the nodes mobility, which can be avoided if the routing protocol responses quickly to the network topology change. In this paper, we propose a Local Route Request (LRREQ) mechanism which is expected to show better performance than Local Repair method that is used in standard AODV.
In mobile ad-hoc wireless network, the link failure is a major challenge. It causes a reduction in performance and efficiency of network resources. This paper presents an enhancement to AODV-DFRP protocol. This developed protocol utilizes the link state prediction method to avoid a link failure in a different way from the existing solutions. The paper focuses only the link failure caused by the nodes mobility, which can be avoided if the routing protocol responses quickly to the network topology change. In this paper, we propose a Local Route Request (LRREQ) mechanism which is expected to show better performance than Local Repair method that is used in standard AODV.

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01/26/2012

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An Improvement of Link Failure Maintenance in Ad-Hoc Wireless Network 
Sayid Mohamed AbduleInterNetWorks Research GroupUUM College of Arts and SciencesUniversity Utara Malaysia06010 UUM Sintok, Malaysiasayidabdule@internetworks.my Suhaidi HassanInterNetWorks Research GroupUUM College of Arts and SciencesUniversity Utara Malaysia06010 UUM Sintok, MalaysiaEmail: suhaidi@uum.edu.my  Mohammed M. KadhumInterNetWorks Research GroupUUM College of Arts and SciencesUniversity Utara Malaysia06010 UUM Sintok, MalaysiaEmail:kadhum@uum.edu.my 
 Abstract
 — 
 In mobile ad-hoc wireless network, the link failure is amajor challenge. It causes a reduction in performance andefficiency of network resources. This paper presents anenhancement to AODV-DFRP protocol. This developed protocolutilizes the link state prediction method to avoid a link failure ina different way from the existing solutions. The paper focusesonly the link failure caused by the nodes mobility, which can beavoided if the routing protocol responses quickly to the networktopology change. In this paper, we propose a Local RouteRequest (LRREQ) mechanism which is expected to show betterperformance than Local Repair method that is used in standardAODV.
(Abstract)
 Keyword: Ad-hoc; AODV;
 I.
 
INTRODUCTIONMobile ad-hoc Network (MANET) is one of the mostfocused research areas in the field of wireless networks as wellas mobile communication for the last decade [1] [2]. Ad-hocnetwork consists of nodes communicating one another withportable radios. In ad-hoc mobile networks, routes are mainlymulti-hop because of the limited broadcasting propagationrange and frequently, and unpredictably, topology changes, aseach network node moves randomly. Therefore, the routingprotocol is an essence task as it transferring packets formsource node to destination. In other words, it can be describedas the process of path finding to reach the desired destination.Finding a new path in ad-hoc network has become a hotresearch issue. In MANET communication, every node in thenetwork acts as a router as it forwards packet from one node toanother.Many routing protocols have been developed for mobile ad-hoc wireless network. Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector(AODV) is one these protocols which have been used widely.AODV is a reactive routing protocol of mobile ad-hocnetwork [3] [4]. When a host or node wants to send a messageto destination-node and does not have a valid route to thatdestination-node, it initiates a route discovery process in orderto find out the destination node. Then, it broadcasts a routerequest (RREQ) packet to its neighbors, which forwards therequest to its neighbors until reaches to the desired destination-node or reaches intermediate node which has information aboutthe route to the destination-node [5]. During the routediscovery processing, each intermediate node recodes its ownsequence number (called broadcast ID). This broadcast ID isincremented for every RREQ that the node initiates, and alsorecords the nodes IP address (source and destination IPaddresses). Intermediate nodes can reply the RREQ, in casethey have a route to the desired destination-node, only if thedestination sequence number is greater than or equal to thatcontained in the RREQ [6].In addition, in forwarding process of the RREQ, theintermediate node records the address of the neighbor fromwhich the first copy of RREQ broadcasted is received, to avoidreceiving several copies of same RREQ and to avoid loopingproblem as well. In case of one of the intermediate nodesreceives copies of same RREQ, these packets are discarded.Upon receiving the RREQ by the destination-node orintermediate node with recent route to destination, it respondsby unicasting a route replay (RREP) packet back to theneighbors that received the first RREQ from [7].In the presence of Link Failure in AODV, when anintermediate node discovers a link failure in active route, itbroadcasts a route error (RERR) packet to inform the sourcenode. Then, the source node will re-initiate a route discoveryprocess again if necessary [8]. One major drawback of AODVprotocol is the source route re-initiating upon a link failure;which is the main point that our paper focuses on. In this paper,we come up with a mechanism that avoids the route re-discovery by the source upon link failure and, at the same time,solves the link failure before the current route becomescompletely disconnected.Many ad-hoc routing protocols have been developed,implemented, and they are categorized into different classes.The common routing protocols used in mobile ad-hoc networks(MANETs) are AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)[9]. These two on-demand ad-hoc network routing protocolsare the most widely studied. Subsequently, numerous protocolsare being developed or modified which are both proactive andreactive routing protocols, such as Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV), Optimized Link 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010182http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
State Routing (OLSR), Topology Broadcast Based on ReversePath Forwarding (TBRPF), Signal Stability based Adaptiverouting (SSA), and mixed routing protocols such as the ZoneRouting Protocol (ZRP), and many others [10]. The goal of thispaper is to propose a very useful mechanism to improveAODV-DFRP protocol
“in press”
[11] and enhance overall ad-hoc wireless network.II.
 
RELATED
 
WORK
 
On mobile ad
 – 
hoc wireless networks, the routedisconnection has a significant negative impact on packetdelivery. The common drawbacks and main consequences of route failures are packet dropping, end-to-end delay, andminimum throughput. These result in overall network inefficiencies. In addition, the interval time for link break detection and construction time of alternative path can be high.Therefore, many link predication studies have been proposed,recently, which focus on improving route repair in advance. In[12], a Predictive Preemptive approach has been proposed toroute maintenance and to avoid link breakage. The mechanismis initiated when a link is about to be broken instead of waitingfor the break to happen. This approach used the Lagrangeinterpolation mathematical model in order to estimate whetheran active route to a neighboring node will fail. When link failure is expected between a node and an upstream neighbor,the upstream neighbor itself attempts, first, to find a route tothe destination. If such route is not found within a discoveryperiod, a link failure warning is propagated via upstream nodesto sources that use this link. Source nodes invoke the routediscovery mechanism if they need a route to the destination.This approach has two drawbacks: (i) if the problem ishappened at the upstream node and not downstream, it is goingto take quite a long process to divert route. (ii) The mechanismshows that the unnecessary warning message is still sending tothe source after a certain period of time which increases thetraffic in the network.In [13], a new flooding mechanism is suggested to controlroute paths. The main point of the proposed scheme is to track 
the destination’s location based on the beacon messages of th
emain route nodes by directional forwarding algorithm. In otherwords, each node recognizes its location through GlobalPositioning Systems (GPS) for a one-hop neighbor node, whichis at a distance of one hop from the main route, recognizes thelocation of the main route node through a beacon message.GPS has some issues; such as the cost associated with their useand that they may not work properly because of fading. Inaddition, other problems with this mechanism could be that theneed for synchronization between the internal clocks of nodes[14].[15] introduces the Packet Received Time (PRT) to predictthe link status in order to avoid link breakdown on an activeroute beforehand. This approach used power measurement of received packets to predict the topological change. Thismechanism works as follows; if current signal of the receivedpacket is greater than the previous one, it indicates the link isstable and do not need prediction algorithm. But if it is weaker
than the previous received packet’s si
gnal power, thenprediction algorithm send RERR upstream to locally maintainthe route, or to the source (initial node) to establish new RREQto find a fresh route to the destination. This mechanism has acommon weakness as many other mechanisms did, namelysending an unnecessary warning messages propagating back tothe source node which again increases the traffic in thenetwork.III.
 
THE
 
PROPOSED
 
APPROACH
 
Our approach concerns an avoidance of link breakagebefore it becomes completely disconnected. The main goal of the proposed mechanism is to avoid sending an unnecessarywarning message upon link failure. In addition, it is animprovement of AODV-DFRP protocol proposed by Sayid
“in press”
 
[16]. However, the avoidance of the reverse route to thesender (source) is the similar objectives for both LRREQ andAODV-DFRP protocol upon link failure. This paper proposestwo mechanisms to improve the DFRP protocol. They are asfollows.
 
Local Route Request (LRREQ)
 
Upstream Notification (UN)Before we present the new proposed mechanisms, weprovide a brief introduction about how the DFRP protocolworks upon a link failure. DFRP protocol uses twomechanisms in order to predict the link breakage and takeaction before it happens. For prediction, it utilizes the link stateprediction method to collect the current link signal strengthstatus in order to detect link breakage. For local or neighborssignal status, it utilizes IEEE 802.11 of wireless standards forbeacon frames to find the node that has a stronger signalcompare to the current connection signal strength amongneighbors. Once one of those neighbors replies with positiveresponse and have both stronger signal and route to thedestination, the current-node will divert the route into thatnode.The weakness of DFRP protocol is, if none of neighborshas stronger signal strength than the current route or it does nothave a route to the destination at all, then the protocol will facea problem in order to process the data forwarding.Our new mechanism, LRREQ, uses the link state predictionmethod, as well, for predicating an active link. In addition, aLRREQ with beacon mechanism will use one hop neighbors tocollect their signal status. LRREQ mechanism uses one hoprange. After the link state predication algorithm informs thatthe link between A and B will be broken soon (Figure 1), nodeA circulates a local route request to neighbors to check signalstatus and whether there is a route to the destination as shownin Figure 2.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010183http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
SR
Prediction model notified that A-B Link is going to be broken soon.
BA
Receiver
 S e n d e r
 
Figure 1. Link A-B is to be broken soon
SR
“A” circulate a Request to adjacent 
,
if there is a strong signal than “B” 
BA
Receiver
 S e n d e r
Upstream node: Where node A receiving data.
Node A’s neighbors
A
Node B is the node that causes the linkfailure
S
Source (sender): the node that initiated aconnection to R
R
Destination node
UPUP
Current node: where the information aboutthe link will be broken soon has beennotified by link state prediction method
 
Figure 2. Node A circulates a Request to adjacent
IIII.
 
LOCAL
 
ROUTE
 
REQUEST
 
(LRREQ)
 
LRREQ comes up with a very useful mechanism on link failure route maintenance. The steps of this mechanism areshown in the through Figures 1-5. LRREQ mechanism is usedwhen the link state prediction model notifies that the link between two intermediate nodes on an active link will bebroken soon. This means that, when the A-B link is going becollapsed soon, node A takes an action to sort out the matter,instead of sending warning message back to the sender as inAODV traditional mechanism. In this respect, node Acirculates a Local Route Request (LRREQ) among itsneighbors, except the node that node A is receiving from (itdoes NOT circulate to upstream node), to find out if there is anode that has a stronger signal than downstream node (in thiscase, th
e downstream node is “B”) and, at the same time, has a
route to the destination (Figure 2).
 A.
 
Upstream Notification (UN)
If current node (in this case, node “A”) could not receive a
positive response from its neighbors (because no one has aroute to the desired destination or maybe they do not have astronger signal than the current connection), the current node(A) will send a notification to previous node (one hop toupstream) indicating the link will be broken soon.Thus, when this node (the upstream node) receives suchnotification from the next hop (downstream), it circulates aLocal Route Request into its neighbors except the upstream oneand so on. This procedure is presented in Figure 3. Theupstream notification continues until a new route to the desireddestination is found.
SR
“Node UP ” circulate a Request to adjacent 
,
if there is a strong signal than “B” 
B
 
A
Receiver
 S e n d e r
N    o   t    i    f     i    c   a   t    i    o   n   
N     o     r    o    u    t    e   N     o     r    o    u    t    e   
 
Notification: the link soon brokenIndicates there is No Route to the destination.Transmission range of node A
UPUP
Upstream node to node A: But now the UP is thecurrent node which circulates the Request after UPreceived NOTIFICATION sent by node A.
Node UP’s neighborsNode A’s neighbors which did not
success the Route to the DestinationLocal Route Request & Signalstrength among neighbors
  C   i  r  c  u   l  a  t   i  n  g   L  R  R  Q  E  S  C   i  r  c  u   l  a  t   i  n  g   L  R  R  Q  E  S
Figure 3.
s
ending a upstream notification
Figure
3
shows that the node A is failed to sort out the link redirection after the link state prediction informed that the A-Blink will not be continued. As mentioned earlier, in LRREQmechanism, node A will circulates two inquires (for thepurpose of finding a stronger signal and a route to destination)to neighbors simultaneously and if one of these inquires notfulfilled, the process will not continue by send a notification tothe previous node to indicate that the existing link will bedisconnected. This message also includes the status of thesignal between nodes A and B. So when the previous node (inthis case is node-UP) receives such notification, it will circulate
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010184http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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