(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 5, August 2010
The outline of basic GA with description is given below:1.
[Start]
Generate random population of
n
chromosomes(suitable solutions for the problem)2.
[Fitness]
Evaluate the fitness
f(x)
of each chromosome
x
inthe population3.
[New population]
Create a new population by repeatingfollowing steps until the new population is complete(a)
[Selection]
Select two parent chromosomes from apopulation according to their fitness (the better fitness,the bigger chance to be selected).(b)
[Crossover]
With a crossover probability cross overthe parents to form new offspring (children). If nocrossover was performed, offspring is the exact copy of parents.(c)
[Mutation]
With a mutation probability mutate newoffspring at each locus (position in chromosome).(d)
[Accepting]
Place new offspring in the newpopulation.4.
[Replace]
Use new generated population for a further runof the algorithm.5.
[Test]
If the end condition is satisfied,
stop
, and return thebest solution in current population.6.
[Loop]
Go to step
2
.As we can see from the GA outline, the
crossover
and
mutation
are the most important parts of the algorithm. Theperformance is influenced mainly by these two operators.Detail of GAs can be found in [8].
C.
Estimation of Distribution Algorithm
In EDAs [6], the problem specific interactions among thevariables of individuals are taken into consideration. It is themost recent adaptation of evolutionary approaches. It is startingto be widely used as a promising alternative of GA. Theevolving process of EDA is the same as GA apart fromcrossover and mutation. Instead, EDA uses probabilisticdistribution. The probability distribution is calculated from adatabase of selected individuals of previous generation. Thepseudo code of EDA can be formulated as follows:1.
[Start]
←
0
D
Generate
M
individuals (the initialpopulation) at random.2.
[Fitness]
Evaluate the fitness
f(x)
of each chromosome
x
inthe population. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for
l
= 1, 2 … until thestopping criteria met.3.
[Selection]
←
−
sel
D
1
Select
N
<=
M
individuals from
D
l –
1
according to selection method.4.
[Estimation]
( )
( )
←=
−
sell
D X p X p
1
Estimate probabilitydistribution of an individual being among the selectedindividuals.5.
[New Population]
←
l
D
Sample
M
individuals (the newpopulation) from
p
i
(
x
).The easiest way to calculate the estimation of probabilitydistribution is to consider all the variables in a problem asunivariate. Then the joint probability distribution becomes theproduct of the marginal probabilities of
n
variables, i.e.,
( ) ( )
∏
−
=
niii
x p x p
1
. (1)
D.
Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithms
In UMDA [6], it is assumed that is there is no interrelationamong the variables of the problems. Hence the
n
-dimensional joint probability distribution is factorized as a product of
n
univariate and independent probability distribution. That is:
( )
( )
( )
∏
−−
==
niiseii
x p D X p X p
11
. (2)
The pseudo code for UMDA is as follows:1.
D
0
←
Generate
M
individuals (the initial population) atrandom.
2.
Repeat steps 3 to 5 for
l
= 1, 2… until stopping criteriamet.
3.
←
−
sel
D
1
Select
N
≤
M
individuals from
D
l–
1
according toselection method.
4.
Estimate the joint probability distribution
( )
( )
( )
∏
−−
==
N iiseii
x p D X p X p
11
. (3)
5.
D
l
←
Sample
M
individuals (the new population) from
p
l
(x).
In UMDA the joint probability distribution is factorized asa product of independent univariate marginal distribution,which is estimated from marginal frequencies:
( )
( )
N D x X x p
N jseiii j
ii
∑
−−
==
11
δ
(4)
with
( )
1
1
==
−
seiii j
D x X
δ
, if in the
j
th
case of
sei
D
1
−
, X
i
= x
i
; 0otherwise.III.
P
ROPOSED
M
ETHOD
We choose a random network with maximum chromosomelength
N
, and applied ZRP to determine different zones with aradius of
r,
where
r
is the maximum distance of a node fromthe central node of a zone. This gives us simplified form of aroute from the source node to the destination node using bordernodes. Using this route as a chromosome, we create the
205http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500