Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Routio ArtisticResearch2004

Routio ArtisticResearch2004

Ratings: (0)|Views: 15|Likes:
Published by nighb

More info:

Published by: nighb on Sep 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/05/2010

pdf

text

original

 
Artistic Research
What is Artistic Research1.Art and Science: Differences and Similarities2.Scientific Art3.Artistic Science4. 
What is Artistic Research
Informative Artistic Studies Until Now
Scientific study of art has today stabilized itself into a few paradigms or discourses of research,like history of art,aesthetics, andsemiotics. Until today, each of these paradigms has produced thousands of reports. Nearly all of these projects have had purely
informative
goals, which meansthat the researcher tries to describe the object of study objectively and avoids generating anychanges to it. In accord with the best principles of disinterested science most researchers havemaintained the impartial nature of their study by avoiding too close contacts with people whomight have strong opinions on art, including professional artists and the general public.The impartial, disinterested purpose has been reflected also in the selection of questions that aretaken up in research. They have seldom concerned practical needs of artists or wishes of thepublic. Instead, because researchers did not need not sell their work to any users (being financedmostly from public funds), they were able to select their problems inside the scientific community,either among problems that are theoretically interesting, or simply among problems that havehabitually been studied in the research community and for which there are well-tried methods.This common manner of scientific activity has been defined by ThomasKuhnas "normal science", and it is often a quite rational technique for accumulating scientific knowledge. Its weakness isthat because only few research projects originate from the needs of artists, the expendituresinvested in research give relatively small benefits to art itself, to the quality of new work or to theprocesses of making it. Consequently, artists only seldom find any use for the reports of scientificstudies of art.
Normative study of art
The basic reason why scientific studies of art so often fail to serve artists is in the very nature of disinterested research. Its goal is to describe impartially existing works of art, but suchinformation is seldom of prime interest to an artist who wants to create new works which complywith contemporary requirements
better
than earlier works could do. The concept of 'better' entailsnecessarily
evaluations,
which reflects the general character of artistic creation which is essentiallygoal-oriented. Research that is intended to assist in this work must be oriented to the same goals,or in other words, it must be
normative.
Impartial description does not suffice.Normative research is generallycategorized in two varieties,depending on the intended extent of 
Artistic Researchhttp://www.uiah./projects/metodi/133.htm1 von 1014.1.2009 7:31 Uhr
 
using the results (see figure on theright):
1.
General level,
the creation of general theory about how to produceworks of art of a certain type. Besidesworks of art, the approach can beapplied to industrial products or to anyother new artifacts, cf. separate pageonTheory of Design. In technology,normative theory contains exactmodels,standardsand algorithms which help the designers to createproducts with desirable
 properties
likeusability,beautyormessage, for example. As a contrast, the normative theory for arts consists more of exemplars, i.e.commendable earlier works of art. The 'general theory' level of research need not include anypractical creation of artifacts (though it often includes testing the proposed theory).
2.
Project-specific
artistic development
purports to assist the creation of a single work of art (or aseries of them) by defining its goals and providing the conceptualmodelon which the work of artshall be based. The research is usually carried out by the artist him/herself who is relatively free todecide on its results, i.e. which goals and principles he/she will select as a basis for the subsequentwork(s) of art. For the development of industrial productscomparable procedures are used, butthere is the difference that usually customers, the manufacturing or marketing departments of thecompany have more influence in the content of the resulting theory and consequently the designerhas less freedom to decide about it.
Artistic research
means combining some of the procedures of scientific research and artisticcreation. The goal is usually normative and project-specific but it can be generally normative aswell. In other words, artistic research can assist in producing a work of art based on a deeperanalysis than usual, and it can also be used for producing theory for the benefit of other artists. Inany case, it is research closely intertwined with the practical design and fabrication of a new workof art. Its philosophy and methods are discussed in the following paragraphs.Artistic research, at least in a small scale, has always belonged to the normal artistic creationprocess. "It belongs to the tradition of pictorial arts that artists want theorize, analyze and manifesttheir thoughts in respect to the paradigms of artistic tradition, philosophy and problems of presentation" writesKiljunen(2001, 20). Likewise,Hannula(2001, 12) thinks that "the need and motives of doctoral studies for pictorial artists arise definitely among the artists themselves, froman organic purpose for enhancing and developing the artistic activity". Artists want to analyzetheir creations verbally, writes, among others,Kantokorpi(2001, 113 and 121): discussionsbetween artists contain more and more references to research, and at every art exhibition you canfind "an A4 sheet, where the artist or his friend more proficient in penmanship tells us what this isall about. Art is being verbalized more than ever."
To sum up:
Artistic theory that purports to help artists in their work, must meet two practicalrequirements:Theory must be arranged into a
normative
structure. Descriptive knowledge of works of art
Artistic Researchhttp://www.uiah./projects/metodi/133.htm2 von 1014.1.2009 7:31 Uhr
 
does not suffice.Normative theory of art cannot consist of explicit
written knowledge
only. It must be ableto accommodate also
exemplars
of existing meritorious works of art, their details, and theprocedures of creating them, not only as illustrations but as indispensable, integralcomponents of theory.Embryonic theories that aim at these targets exist on a few fields of design, notably inarchitecture,and nothing prevents creating similar theories on any field of art. There would be no need for new,specific methodology of research because much can be done by simply combining the processes of scientificnormative researchand artistic creation. Of course, such a marriage requires adjustingboth of these procedures in order to improve the interchange of knowledge and know-how. Somepossible approaches to that effect are discussed below.
Art and Science: Differences and Similarities
Art and science have common historical roots in antiquity, when the Greek term 'tekhne' and Latin'ars' covered several areas of culture which only later were differentiated into arts and sciences, cf.a short account of it under the titleTheory of Design. Even today they have much in common.
Goals
We all agree that the goal of scientific research is to uncover and publish
knowledge
, informationabout the object of study, which knowledge then other people perhaps can use for solving theirproblems. This target is in principle similar to an important goal in art, as is shown byNovitz(1984), among others. Another similarity is that the knowledge which is presented can be eitherinformative(i.e. accepting the state of things as it is) ornormative(i.e. explaining how you can change things).As well in sciences as in arts we seek primarily
new
knowledge that has not been published earlier.Moreover, we consider that the better the presented knowledge is
generalizable
, the more valuableit is, because more people can then use it.Despite of the common goal of science and art - to present generalizable knowledge - their modesof presenting the intelligence are different.
A work of art
presents information as amodel of a singular case, but the modeof presentation is chosen so that it willbe easy for the public to apply theknowledge to new contexts, for exampleto situations in their personal lives. Oneusual technique for this is that the artistfirst "studies" the motif on a moregeneral level and then, when returning to the naturalistic level avoids unnecessary details in thepresentation or makes deliberately the work ambiguous. It remains the task of the public, first tointerpret the work of art into a more general level and thereafter to apply the content to theirpersonal use (see figure on the left). These techniques differ from those used in the sciences, butthe purpose is the same: make the model generalizable.
Artistic Researchhttp://www.uiah./projects/metodi/133.htm3 von 1014.1.2009 7:31 Uhr

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->