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Geodesy, Bomford

Geodesy, Bomford

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Published by: andresmejia68 on Sep 06, 2010
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06/23/2014

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GEODESY
BY
Brigadier
G.''
BOMFORD,
o.b.e.,
m.a.
LATE
EOYAL
ENGINEERS
EEADEB
IN
SURVEYING
IN
THE
UNIVERSITY
OF
OXFORD
OXFORD
AT
THE
CLARENDON
PRESS
1952
 
Oxford
University
Press,
Amen
House,
London
E.C.4
GLASGOW
NEW
YOBK
TOBONTO
MELBOUBNE
WELLINGTCjk
BOMBAY
CALCUTTA
MADBAS
CAPE
TOWN
Geoffrey
Cumberlege,Publisher
to
the
University
q3
665"
6750^2
PEINTBD
IN
GREAT
BRITAIN
 
PREFACE
The
literal
meaning
of
'Geodesy'
is
'Dividing
the
Earth',
and
its
first
object
is
to
provide
an
accurate
framework
for
the
control
oftopographical
surveys.
Some
authors
have
included
almost
any
kind
of
triangulation
in
the
subject,
but
it
is
now
more
usual
to
describe
only
the
main
framework
as
geodetic,
and
todescribeas
topographical
triangulation
the
work
of
breaking
down
the
intervals
between
widelyspaced
geodetic
stations.
There
is
no
need
to
be
precise
about
the
distinction,
but
the
assumption
here
made
is
thatthe
reader
knows
how
to
use
such
theodolites
as
the
5-inch
micrometer
or
3f
-inch
Wild,
and
can
measure
angles
correctly
to
within
5
or10
seconds
of
arc.
Geodesy
is
thentaken
to
include
:
(a)
Primary
triangulation,
and
the
possible
use
of
radar
as
a
sub-
stitute.
(6)
The
control
of
azimuth
by
Laplace
stations,
and
of
scale
by
base
measurement,
and
the
closely
related
process
of
primary
traverseas
a
substitute
for
triangulation.
(c)
The
measurement
of
height
above
sea-level
by
primary
triangulation
or
spirit
levelhng.This,
however,
is
not
the
end
of
the
subject.
Circumstances
have
caused
geodesy
to
overlap
to
some
extent
with
what
might
reason-
ably
be
described
as
geophysics.
Triangulation
cannot
be
computed
without
a
knowledge
of
the
figure
of
the
earth,
and
from
very
early
days
geodesy
has
includedastronomical
observationsof
latitude
and
longitude,
not
only
to
locate
detached
survey
systems,
but
to
enable
triangulation
to
give
the
lengthof
thedegree
of
latitude
or
longitude
in
different
partsof
the
earth,
and
so
to
determine
the
earth's
figure.
An
alternative
approach
to
the
same
subject
has
been
via
the
variation
of
gravity
between
equator
and
pole,
as
measured
by
timing
the
swing
of
a
pendulum.
But
these
two
operations,
the
measure-
ment
of
the
direction
and
intensity
of
gravity,
have
led
to
more
than
the
determination
of
the
axes
of
a
spheroidal
earth.
They
have
revealed
the
presence
of
irregularities
in
the
earth's
figure
and
gravita-tion
which
constitute
one
of
the
few
available
guides
to
its
internal
composition.
It
is
impossible
to
be
precise
about
the
dividing
line
between
geodesy
and
geophysics,
but
for
the
present
purposegeodesy
is
held
to
include
:
(d)
Observation
ofthe
direction
ofgravity
by
astronomical
observations
for
latitude
and
longitude.
I

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