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Table Of Contents

Abstract
Preface
List of publications
Abbreviations
1. Introduction
2. Literature review
2.1 Microorganisms associated with beer production and dispensing
2.1.1 Absolute beer spoilage organisms
2.1.2 Potential beer spoilage organisms
2.1.3 Indirect beer spoilage organisms
2.1.4 Indicator organisms
2.1.5 Latent organisms
2.1.6 Microorganisms associated with beer dispensing systems
2.2 Contamination sources
2.2.1 Primary contaminations
2.2.2 Secondary contaminations
2.2.3 Contamination of beer dispensing systems
2.3 Significance of biofilms in the food and beverage industry
2.3.1 Microbial adhesion and biofilm formation
2.3.2 Microbial interactions in biofilms
2.3.3 The role of biofilms in different environments
2.3.4 Biofilms in beer production and dispensing
2.4 Control strategies
2.4.1 Resistance of beer to microbial spoilage
2.4.2 Processes for reduction of microorganisms
2.4.3 Hygienic design
2.4.4 Cleaning and disinfection
2.4.5 Assessment of process hygiene
3. Aims of the study
4. Materials and methods
4.1 Microorganisms
Attachment and biofilm formation (II)
4.2 Attachment and biofilm formation
4.3 Cleaning trials
4.3.1 Cleaning-in-place (CIP)
4.3.2 Foam cleaning
4.4 Methods used for detachment of microorganisms from surfaces
4.5 Detection methods
4.5.1 Cultivation methods
4.5.2 ATP bioluminescence
4.5.3 Protein detection
4.5.4 Epifluorescence microscopy
4.5.5 Impedance measurement
4.5.6 Scanning electron microscopy
4.6 Identification and characterisation methods
4.6.1 API strips
4.6.2 SDS-PAGE
4.6.3 Ribotyping
5. Results and discussion
5.1 Biofilm formation in beer production and dispense (I, II, III, IV)
5.2 Significance of surface hygiene
5.2.1 Susceptibility of surfaces to biofilm formation (III, IV)
5.2.2 Cleanability (III, IV, V)
5.3.1 Sampling methods (I, V)
5.4 Detection and characterisation of Lactobacillus lindneri (VI)
5.4.1 Detection of L. lindneri
5.4.2 Characterisation of L. lindneri
6. Summary and conclusions
References
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Hygiene in Beer

Hygiene in Beer

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Published by: stardhust on Sep 06, 2010
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11/25/2012

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