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Welcome to Computer Network

Welcome to Computer Network

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Published by farhan_abedi

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Published by: farhan_abedi on Sep 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Understanding Computer Network:
What is computer network? 
A network is group of computers interconnected with each other to exchange information or resource.A computer network is collection of interconnected autonomous computers interconnected in a singletechnology.Two computers are said to interconnected with each other if they share some information betweenthem.
What are the advantages of having computer network? 
1.Increased communication capabilities.2.File sharing: Network offer quick and easy way to share files directly at a rapid speed thus saving timeand integrity of files.3.Resouce sharing : All computers in a network can share resources like printer, scanner, modem, faxmachines, hard disk.4.
pecific directories can be password protected to limit access to authorized users. Also, filesand programs on a network can be designated as "copy inhibit" so you dont have to worry about theillegal copying of programs.5. It is also possible to share data files across the network by creating a share on the hard drive andallowing other people access to that information.6.Increases the productivity.7. You can connect all the computers which are connected through a network to the internet by using asingle line.
o it means that you can save the connection cost for each computer but you internetconnection must be fast.8.
Internet connection sharing
- Using a home network, multiple family members can access theInternet simultaneously without having to pay anI
for multiple accounts. You will notice the Internetconnection slows down when several people share it, but broadband Internet can handle the extra loadwith little trouble.
haring dial-up Internet connections works, too.orConnect your entire office to the Internet through one line.
hat are the disadvantages of computer network?
1.Network faults can cause loss of data.2.Network faults could lead to loss of resources.3.
ystems open to hackers.4.Could become inefficient.5.Could degrade to performance.6.Resources could be located too far from users.7.As a work group user cannot Login from other work group machine within LAN network.8.User also cannot login from any remote machine from WAN environment.
What are the different types of computer networks? 
PAN( personal area network) :
Network that is meant for one personEg: A wireless network connecting a computer with its mouse, keyboard, printer is
AN. Covers 1mdistance only.
LAN (local area network) :
LANs are privately owned network which covers a room, building or acampus ( 10m, 100m, 1km) of distance.LANs are widely used in offices, companies, industries.Characteristics:* Lans are restricted in size*Lans uses transmission media as cable , to which all the machine are attached.*Lans basically uses Bus and Ring Topologies( network structure) to broadcast.Traditional Lans runs at the speed of 100Mbps and newer Lans runs at the speed of 10Gbps.Lans are un-switched ( they dont have routers).
MAN (metropoliterian area network):
MAN covers city ( about 10Km) in distance.The best example of Man is the CABLE TV NETWORK available .Cable TV is not the only MAN ,development in high speed wireless internet access resulted in MAN.
MANs are also un-switched ( i.e dont have routers)
WAN (wide area network):
A wide area network covers a large geographical areas like country or acontinent ( about 100Km, 1000Km, 10,000Km)in distance.In WAN, subnet consist of two components Transmission lines like copper cable, optical fiber ( move bitsbetween machines) and
witching elements or routers (specialized computers or devices that connects3 or more transmission lines, when date arrives to incoming line, router choose an outgoing line onwhich to forward them.Hosts ( users computers) are connected to subnet.
ubnet is owned and operated by telephone company or isp.The subnet is collection of communication lines and routers ( but not hosts).The job of subnet is to carry message from host to host .In most WANs , the network contains numerous transmission lines , each one connecting pair of router.If two routers do not share a transmission line , wish to communicate they must do this indirectly viaother router .When a packet is sent from one router to another via one or more intermediate routers, the packet isreceived at each intermediate router in its entirety , stored until the required output is free, and thenforwarded.This principle is known as store and forward or packet switched subnet.
What are the types of transmission media ? 
ignals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to twocategories.Guided Media:These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair,coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and iscontained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic thataccept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plasticcable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light.Unguided Media:This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physicalconductor.
ignals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication,satellite communication and cellular telephony.

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