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GSM 5114~ Questions & Answers

GSM 5114~ Questions & Answers

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Published by Oon Kok Kem

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Published by: Oon Kok Kem on Sep 06, 2010
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Describe your understanding of management research by explaining how you identify the problemsituation, the approach and methods (positivist, interpretive or mixed theory) you used, the justificationfor the theoretical framework, data collection and analysis, and the value of your research outputs asperceived by the academics in the management discipline and managers or practitioners in the industry.Based on the quality of the individual student’s tentative research proposal.
SECTION B: Answer any FOUR questions. Each of the questions carries 15 marks.QUESTION 2
Describe, compare and contrast the four levels of scale measurement.
Type of Scale
Description Comparison/CommentsNominal scale Assigns a value to an objectfor identification orclassification purposeThe most elementary level of measurement and data couldbe analysed using non-parametric tests only.Ordinal scale It is a ranking scale but itdoes not indicate the valueof the interval betweenrankingsIt has nominal properties thatallow things to be arrangedbased on how much of someconcept they possess. Datacould be analysed using non-parametric tests only.Interval scale It captures relative quantitiesin the form of distancesbetween observations.It has both nominal and ordinalproperties and data could beanalysed using both parametricand non-parametric testsRatio scale It is the highest form of measurement andrepresents absolutequantities.There is a absolute zero anddata can be analysed usingboth parametric and non-parametric testsb.
Why does a researcher often use more than one question to measure a concept, such asemployee satisfaction?A concept such as employee satisfaction may have several dimensions and hence, severalquestions may be needed to provide a valid and reliable measurement of the concept.
What is reliability and validity in the context of conducting a research? How can the reliabilityand validity of a multi-item composite scale be assessed?Reliability is an indicator of a measure’s internal consistency. A measure is reliable when differentattempts at measuring the item converge on the same result. Internal consistency represents ameasure of homogeneity of multiple-item composite scale and Cronbah alpha is the mostcommonly applied estimate of reliability.Validity refers to the extent to which an empirical measure adequately reflects the real meaningof the concept under consideration. There are several criteria or types of validity for measuringthe appropriateness of the agreed-on meanings of concepts. The types of validity are facevalidity, criterion-related validity, construct validity and content validity.
Job Placement Agency Sdn Bhd, which specialises in recruiting employees for the trading and servicessector, had engaged Mr. Joe, a senior researcher associated with a research institute, to conduct a studyto examine the following issues:i.
How does employee appearance affect customer purchasing decision?ii.
How does employee appearance affect customer ethics?Mr. Joe decided the issues can best be investigated by conducting a laboratory experiment. Theexperimental variables were:Independent variables: type of attire (professional vs. unprofessional);Selling approach (soft vs. aggressive)Dependent variables: Time spent by subject (customer) talking to employeeAmount spent by subject on purchasesControl variable: genderThe experiment was conducted in a mock retail shop set up in a lecture room of an institution of higherlearning and the subjects for the experiment were students. Each subject was told to play the role of acustomer who had just bought some slacks and a shirt. A research assistant played the role of the retailemployee who tried to persuade the subject (customer) to buy additional product items.At the end of the experiment, each subject was required to complete a simple questionnaire, consistingof several items rated on a 7-point semantic differential scale regarding his/her experience with theretail employee.Required:a.
Develop TWO hypotheses that correspond to the research questions.H1: Customers will spend more (will spend more time talking) if the employee dressesprofessional.H2: Customer will spend more (will spend more time talking) if the employee uses an aggressiveselling approach.
Assuming the researcher is interested to examine how the feelings or experiences of each subjectaffect his/her decision to buy and the amount spent, develop TWO questionnaire items to beused to measure the subject’s feelings or experiences.1.
I feel more comfortable talking to the retail employee who is professionally dressed.2.
I am likely to spend more if the retail employee adopts a persistent and aggressiveapproach in selling items to me.(Likert scale: strongly agreed ……………………..strongly disagreed)c.
Comment the appropriateness of the use of experimental design in this study from the viewpointof internal and external validity.The experimental approach allows researcher to have better control over the research settingand extraneous variables that may influence the decision variable. Thus, the experimental studyhas high internal validity which means that the variance in the dependent variable is explained bythe experimental variable, and a causal relationship can be established. However, there is atradeoff with respect to external validity, which is the accuracy with which the experimentalresults can be generalized beyond the experimental subjects. Nevertheless, the results of the labexperiments could be later validated by some field tests. The use of student surrogates may alsodiminish external validity, unless the students are representative of the type of clientele (young &educated) that the retail store caters for.
A business consulting firm which specialises in start-up companies and those involved in technologyinnovation, conducted an online survey into the attitudes of financiers, investors and venture capitalistswith regard to the importance of technology for start-up companies and the types of business ideas thatinvestors are looking for when deciding on whether to finance these start-ups. The main question askedin the survey was:
Do you believe that unique technology is crucial to the success of start-up companies? 1.
Rarely 2.
Occasionally 3.
Frequently 4.
Usually 5.
The remainder of the survey asked for reasons why technology is important for start-ups and invitedcomments from the respondents.Required:a.
Evaluate on the rating scale used for the question in this survey.The rating scale is a 5-point semantic differential scale with clear labels for categorisation. Thescale has no neutral point and hence, is an unbalanced scale that does not allow respondent tobe indifferent. The 5-point rating scale is a more sensitive measure than a binary scale that

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