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hc2nech02

hc2nech02

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Published by: talktotiffanycheng on Sep 06, 2010
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06/04/2013

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CHAPTER
2
 Measurements and Calculations
 Measurements provide quantitative information.
3.5 nm3.5 nm4 500 000X
Copyright ©by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
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Copyright ©by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Scientific Method 
S
ometimes progress in science comes about through accidental dis-coveries.However,most scientific advances result from carefullyplanned investigations.The process researchers use to carry out theirinvestigations is often called the scientific method.
The
scientificmethod
is a logical approach to solving problems by observing and col-lecting data,formulating hypotheses,testing hypotheses,and formulatingtheories that are supported by data
.
Observing and Collecting Data
Observing
is the use of the senses to obtain information.Observationoften involves making measurements and collecting data.The data maybe descriptive (qualitative) or numerical (quantitative) in nature.Numerical information,such as the fact that a sample of copper ore hasa mass of 25.7 grams,is
quantitative
.Non-numerical information,such asthe fact that the sky is blue,is
qualitative
.Experimenting involves carrying out a procedure under controlledconditions to make observations and collect data.To learn moreaboutmatter,chemists study systems.
 A
system
is a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during anexperiment or observation.
When you observe a reaction in a test tube,the test tube and its contents form a system.
MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS
29
SECTION
2-1
O
 BJECTIVES
Describe the purpose of thescientific method.Distinguish betweenqualitative and quantitativeobservations.Describe the differencesbetween hypotheses,theories,and models.
FIGURE 2-1
These students aredesigning an experiment to deter-mine how to get the largest volumeof popped corn from a fixed numberof kernels.They think that thevolume is likely to increase as themoisture in the kernels increases.Their experiment will involvesoaking some kernels in water andobserving whether the volume of thepopped corn is greater than that of corn popped from kernels that havenot been soaked.
NSTA
TOPIC:
Scientific methods
GO TO:
www.scilinks.org
sci 
LINKS CODE:
HC2021
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Copyright ©by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.
Time (days)
   G  r  o  w   t   h   (  c  m   )
3025201510500 252015105
Plant Growth vs. Time
50% phosphorusfertilizer25% phosphorusfertilizer10% phosphorusfertilizerno fertilizer
Formulating Hypotheses
As scientists examine and compare the data from their own experiments,they attempt to find relationships and patterns—in other words,theymakegeneralizations based on the data.Generalizationsare statementsthat apply to a range of information.To make generalizations,data aresometimes organized in tables and analyzed using statistics or othermathematical techniques,often with the aid of graphs and a computer.Scientists use generalizations about the data to formulate a
hypothesis,
or testable statement 
.The hypothesis serves as a basis formaking predictions and for carrying out further experiments.Hypotheses are often drafted as “if-thenstatements.The “then”part of the hypothesis is a prediction that is the basis for testing by experiment.Figure 2-2 shows data collected to test a hypothesis.
Testing Hypotheses
Testing a hypothesis requires experimentation that provides data tosupport or refute a hypothesis or theory.Do the data in Figure 2-2 sup-port the hypothesis? If testing reveals that the predictions were not cor-rect,the generalizations on which the predictions were based must bediscarded or modified.One of the most difficult,yet most important,aspects of science is rejecting a hypothesis that is not supported by data.
CHAPTER 2
30
FIGURE 2-2
A graph of datacan show relationships betweentwo variables.In this case the graphshows data collected during anexperiment to determine the effectof phosphorus fertilizer compoundson plant growth.The following is onepossible hypothesis:
 If 
phosphorusstimulates corn-plant growth,
then
corn plants treated with a solublephosphorus compound should growfaster,under the same conditions,than corn plants that are not treated.
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