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ometimes progress in science comes about through accidental dis-coveries.However,most scientific advances result from carefullyplanned investigations.The process researchers use to carry out theirinvestigations is often called the scientific method.
is a logical approach to solving problems by observing and col-lecting data,formulating hypotheses,testing hypotheses,and formulatingtheories that are supported by data
Observing and Collecting Data
is the use of the senses to obtain information.Observationoften involves making measurements and collecting data.The data maybe descriptive (qualitative) or numerical (quantitative) in nature.Numerical information,such as the fact that a sample of copper ore hasa mass of 25.7 grams,is
.Non-numerical information,such asthe fact that the sky is blue,is
.Experimenting involves carrying out a procedure under controlledconditions to make observations and collect data.To learn moreaboutmatter,chemists study systems.
is a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during anexperiment or observation.
When you observe a reaction in a test tube,the test tube and its contents form a system.
MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS
Describe the purpose of thescientific method.Distinguish betweenqualitative and quantitativeobservations.Describe the differencesbetween hypotheses,theories,and models.
These students aredesigning an experiment to deter-mine how to get the largest volumeof popped corn from a fixed numberof kernels.They think that thevolume is likely to increase as themoisture in the kernels increases.Their experiment will involvesoaking some kernels in water andobserving whether the volume of thepopped corn is greater than that of corn popped from kernels that havenot been soaked.