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A M P 1

A M P 1

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Published by: pbd123auto on Sep 07, 2010
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Automobile Manufacturing System
Chapter 1. Forging
1.1 Introduction:
Forging is one of the oldest metal working operations dating back to atleast4000 B.C. Forging was traditionally done by blacksmiths. The equipmentsused were heavy hand hammer and simple anvil.Plastic deformation occurs when metal is stretched or compressed beyondelastic limit. During the deformation the metal flows plastically and grainshapes are changed. If the deformation is carried out at higher temperature,total new grains are formed. This process of formation of new grains isknown as recrystallisation. The temperature at which this process iscomplete is known as the recrystallisation temperature. This temperaturevaries from metal to metal.Plastic deformation of metal below its recrystallization temperature is calledas cold working, where as plastic deformation of metal above itsrecrystallisation temperature, but below melting temperature is called as hotworking.
Forging can be defined as the controlled plastic deformation of metals atelevated temperatures in to a predetermined size or shape usingcompressive forces exerted, through some type of die, by a hammer, apress or upsetting machine.Forging enhances the mechanical properties of metals and improves thegrain flow, which in turn increases the strength and toughness of the forgedcomponents.
Dhaigude. P. B
Page 1
Automobile Manufacturing System
Forgeability can be defined as the tolerance of a metal or alloy fordeformation without failure.Thus good forgeability means less resistance to deformation and evenadverse effects such as cracking are not there. Forgeability can be evaluatedon basis of following tests:(a)Hot twist test(b)Upset test
Hot impact test
Hot Twist Test:
 In this test, a hot bar is twisted and numbers of twistsbefore failure are counted. A large number of twists before failure indicatebetter forgeability.
Upset Test:
 In this test the cylindrical billets are upset-forged tovarious thickness. The limit of upset forging without failure or cracking isconsidered measure of forgeability. This test is widely used in forgingindustry.
Hot-Impact Tensile Test:
 A conventional impact-testing machine fitted with atension test attachment is used. The impact tensile test is taken asmeasure of forgeability.
Dhaigude. P. B
Page 2
Automobile Manufacturing System
1.4Forging Materials:
The selection of forging material is made on the basis of certain desirablemechanical properties inherent in the composition of material and someproperties can be developed by forging such as strength, resistance tofatigue, good machining characteristics, durability etc.Following is the list of some alloys in ascending order of forgeability1. Aluminium alloys5. Low-alloy steels 9. Titanium alloys2. MagnesiumAlloys6.Martensitic stainlessSteels10. Tantalum alloys3. Copper alloys7. Austenitic stainlessSteels11. Molybdenumalloys4. Plain carbonSteels8. Nickel alloys12. Tungsten alloys
1.5Forging Temperatures:
For successful forging, the metal piece must be heated to propertemperature to attain plastic properties before deformation.Excessive temperature may result in the burning of the metal. Insufficienttemperature will not induce sufficient plasticity, so it will be difficult to shapeby hammering.The finishing temperature is also important to get a fine grained structure.The temperature ranges for some common metals are given in table 1.1Sr.No.Metal / AlloyForging Temperature
Dhaigude. P. B
Page 3

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