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Virtual dielectric waveguide mode description of a high-gain free-electron laser.II. Modeling and numerical simulations

Erik Hemsing,

1

Avraham Gover,

2

and James Rosenzweig

1

1

Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA

2

Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv 69978, Tel-Aviv, Israel

Received 15 February 2008; published 20 June 2008

A high-gain free-electron laser is modeled using an expansion of the radiation ﬁeld in terms of guidedLaguerre-Gaussian modes of a virtual dielectric waveguide

E. Hemsing, A. Gover, and J. Rosenzweig, pre-ceding paper, Phys Rev. A

77

, 063830

2008

. The radiation proﬁle evolution, power gain, and detuningefﬁciency characteristics are investigated for seeding with fundamental Gaussian and higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian input modes on a Gaussian

e

-beam in the collective regime. The full wave evolution solution atdifferent seed radiation injection conditions results in determination of the optimal waist size and waist positionof the seed radiation beam for maximum power coupling efﬁciency. Results for guided mode evolution andpower gain are shown to be consistent with simulations performed with the code

GENESIS

1.3. The ampliﬁca-tion and spontaneous generation of FEL radiation with orbital angular momentum is also considered.DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.77.063831PACS number

s

: 42.25.Dd, 41.60.Cr, 42.60.Jf, 42.50.Tx

I. INTRODUCTION

In paper I of this work

, a set of coupled excitationequations is derived for the slowly growing mode coefﬁ-cients of the electromagnetic

EM

signal ﬁeld of a high-gainfree-electron laser

FEL

with the effects of longitudinalspace-charge waves included. The formulation utilizes an ex-pansion of the time-harmonic EM ﬁelds in terms of eigen-modes of a weakly guiding virtual dielectric medium as amechanism to describe the propagation of radiation guidedby the source electron beam

e

-beam

during exponentialgain. The dielectric in the model is referred to as “virtual”since no such external waveguide structure exists in thephysical system. The dielectric is imagined to surround theaxially propagating

e

-beam and is used as a tool to describeguided waves over many diffracting Rayleigh lengths. Thisapproach is also motivated by the variety of functional formsthat can be obtained for the expansion modes, which aredetermined by the choice of transverse spatial dependence of the dielectric refractive index. This feature is attractive be-cause it permits the freedom to choose a particular basis setin which the coupling and propagation of speciﬁc modestructures can be investigated directly. It also makes it pos-sible to study a variety of FEL conﬁgurations with arbitrarilyshaped

e

-beam current and density cross sections. The ex-pansion modes can also be selected to be close in form to themodes describing the actual FEL system

if they are approxi-mately known, or can be found through iteration

, therebyreducing the number of modes required to converge the so-lution to the correct value and thus boosting the computa-tional efﬁciency.Here we focus on a complete orthogonal guided basis setof Laguerre-Gaussian

LG

modes which are of particularinterest since they are ubiquitous in descriptions of paraxialwave propagation in circularly symmetric structures. LGmodes are related by a simple transformation to Hermite-Gaussian modes, which also satisfy the paraxial wave equa-tion and are common in descriptions of Gaussian optics insystems with rectilinear symmetries. These functions areboth available in the guided mode description by choosing aquadratic index medium

QIM

for the form refractive indexof the virtual dielectric. This correspondence establishes auseful connection between the guided modes of the FEL andnaturally occurring free-space modes, and enables a straight-forward examination of the propagation of radiation exitingthe undulator, as well as investigation of the coupling char-acteristics of individual modes in the FEL interaction.The utility of the LG modes as a convenient FEL model-ing basis is further realized in the exploration of speciﬁccoupling to higher-order spatial modes. This is of increasingrecent interest, particularly due to the development of high-brightness, x-ray FELs in which spatial structure in the trans-verse intensity distribution can be used for investigations of molecular and atomic scale processes. Hollow modes, in theform of

l

0 azimuthal LG modes, have recently been atopic of intense research since such modes are known topossess

l

units of orbital angular momentum

OAM

perphoton as a consequence of an azimuthal component of thelinear momentum

. For next-generation x-ray FELs thatwill have the ability to probe the structure of matter on shortlength and time scales, the generation of such modes may berelevant, since the OAM can be transferred from the photonﬁeld to the sample material. Such interactions using conven-tional laser sources have been previously shown to drive tar-get particles to rotate or orbit the EM beam axis, allowingthe possibility of light driven mechanical devices, or the useof torque from photons as a exploratory tool

. Recentwork has shown that vortex beams that contain OAM modescan be generated using mode-conversion elements placed inthe x-ray beam path

. However, modern high power x-rayFELs may limit the utility of such extrinsic methods due todamage constraints. For this reason, it is of interest to ex-plore the possibility of generating OAM modes by intrinsiccoupling to the source e-beam. In addition, in visible veryhigh average power FELs, it may be advantageous to utilizehigher order modes that not only have larger angular spread,

PHYSICAL REVIEW A

77

, 063831

2008

1050-2947/2008/77

6

/063831

8

©2008 The American Physical Society063831-1

but also have a null in the intensity on-axis. In this way, onegreatly eases the problem of thermal loading at the ﬁrst ra-diation beam-directing mirror optic downstream of undulator

. The coupling to these modes, as well as to otherhigher-order paraxial modes, can be investigated directly byan expansion of the high-gain FEL radiation ﬁeld in terms of guided LG eigenmodes of a QIM.In this paper, the coupled excitation equations of the gen-eralized virtual dielectric expansion description are speciﬁedand solved for an LG expansion basis. Results are comparedto numerical simulations performed using the FEL code

GEN-ESIS

1.3

. The radiation ﬁelds are examined in the contextof differential power gain, spot size evolution, input seedcoupling efﬁciency, detuning efﬁciency enhancement, andhigher-order mode coupling. The LG Gaussian mode basisalso provides a straightforward way to examine the accuracyof the single Gaussian mode approximation

SGM

devel-oped in paper I for predicting the supermode r.m.s. spot size.The coupling to, and

in situ

generation of, dominant higher-order LG signal ﬁelds that contain OAM at the fundamentaloperating frequency is also suggested and brieﬂy examined.

II. COUPLED EXCITATION EQUATIONS

In the formulation derived in paper I, the time-harmonicsignal ﬁelds of the FEL are approximated as dominantlytransverse, forward propagating guided waves, and are writ-ten as a sum over basis modes with slowly growing coefﬁ-cient amplitudes

E

˜

r

=

q

C

q

z

E

˜

q

r

e

ik

zq

z

.

1

The axial wave number for each mode

q

is taken to be realhere and is given by

k

zq

. In a linear model, the

e

-beam chargedensity is written as

n

r

,

t

=

n

0

f

r

+Re

n

˜

1

r

e

−

i

t

where

n

0

is the on-axis electron density and

f

r

is the transversedensity proﬁle of the

e

-beam. The density modulation

n

˜

1

r

is also expanded in terms of the transverse waveguide eigen-modes

n

˜

1

r

=

k

0

e

q

B

q

z

E

˜

q

r

e

i

/

v

z

0

z

,

2

where

B

q

z

is the slowly varying amplitude of the densitymodulation with transverse dependence given by the modefunction

E

˜

q

r

. This expansion allows the density wavewith phase dependence

z

/

v

z

0

−

t

to be described in termsof the orthogonal ﬁeld basis functions. The coupled excita-tion equations for the FEL interaction derived in paper I are

d dzC

q

z

= −

i

q

gˆ

q

B

q

z

e

i

q

z

−

i

q

q

,

q

d

C

q

z

e

i

q

−

q

z

,

d

2

dz

2

B

q

z

+

p

2

j

F

q

,

j

B

j

z

= −1

gˆ

q

q

q

Q

q

,

q

C

q

z

e

−

i

q

z

,

3

where

q

=

/

v

z

0

−

k

zq

+

k

w

is the detuning parameter,

p

=

e

2

n

0

/

z

2

0

m

v

z

0

2

is the longitudinal plasma wave numberon axis in a one-dimensional

1D

model,

2

=

z

2

1+

K

2

/

2

,

q

=

Kk

2

/

4

k

zq

,

K

=

e

B

˜

w

/

mck

w

is the undulator parameter,where

B

˜

w

is the undulator ﬁeld magnitude,

k

w

=2

/

w

isthe undulator wave number and

gˆ

q

=

eˆ

z

eˆ

w

·

eˆ

q

is the polar-ization alignment factor which measures the relative align-ment of the transverse electron motion in the undulator

eˆ

z

eˆ

w

with the electric-ﬁeld mode polarization direction

eˆ

q

.The EM ﬁeld mode overlap in the virtual dielectric is givenby

q

,

q

d

, the mode coupling coefﬁcient

Q

q

,

q

gives the EMﬁeld coupling to the wiggling, density-modulated

e

-beam

or

e

-beam optical current

, and

F

q

,

q

is the beam proﬁle overlapcoefﬁcient, which measures the spatial overlap of the

e

-beamproﬁle with the expansion modes

q

,

q

.The coupled equations in Eq.

fully describe the exci-tation and dynamic evolution of the signal ﬁeld and densitymodulation during the FEL interaction, from the startup pe-riod through the high-gain regime. The equations can besolved for an arbitrarily shaped

e

-beam proﬁle. The effects of longitudinal space charge are also included, assuming thatthe characteristic transverse

e

-beam radius is greater than thebunching wavelength

r

0

z

such that fringing ﬁelds areneglected. It will be shown here, however, that the equationsstill adequately describe many of the pertinent features of theFEL when

r

0

z

.

III. GUIDED LAGUERRE-GAUSSIAN MODES

The basis eigenmodes used in the expansions of the ﬁeldsand the density modulation satisfy the dielectric ﬁeld equa-tion

2

E

˜

q

r

+

n

r

2

k

2

−

k

zq

2

E

˜

q

r

= 0,

4

where the variation in the refractive index is taken to besmall in the paraxial approximation

n

r

2

k

. The spatialdependence of

n

r

2

in Eq.

fully determines the func-tional form of the expansion basis in the excitation equa-tions. To obtain the desired guided Laguerre-Gaussian modeswe choose the refractive index of a QIM, with a speciﬁedquadratic spatial dependence of the form

n

2

r

=

n

02

−

r z

R

2

,

5

where

z

R

=

kw

02

/

2 is the Rayleigh length and

w

0

is the char-acteristic waist size of a transversely Gaussian mode proﬁle.The refractive index on axis

n

0

can be set to unity for sim-plicity. By inserting Eq.

into Eq.

we obtain guided LGmodes which have the form

E

˜

;

p

,

l

r

,

=

A

˜

p

,

l

2

w

02

p

!

p

+

l

!

− 1

p

e

−

il

e

−

r

2

/

w

02

r

2

w

0

l

L

p

l

2

r

2

w

02

,

6

where

L

pl

x

=

j

=0

p

p

+

l

!

−

x

j

/

j

!

p

−

j

!

l

+

j

! is an associ-ated Laguerre polynomial and

A

˜

p

,

l

is a normalization con-stant such that

E

˜

;

p

,

l

E

˜

;

p

,

l

d

2

r

=

p

,

p

l

,

l

A

˜

p

,

l

2

. The

HEMSING, GOVER, AND ROSENZWEIG PHYSICAL REVIEW A

77

, 063831

2008

063831-2

mode index

q

now takes on two values

p

,

l

correspondingto the radial and azimuthal mode indices, respectively.

Wewill use both

q

and

p

,

l

mode indices interchangeably whenthe multiple indexes are cumbersome

. LG modes of thistype provide a convenient working basis to model the FELradiation for geometries that are largely axisymmetric overthe interaction length. The ﬁeld modes in Eq.

are identi-cal in the transverse dependence to free-space LG ﬁelds thatsatisfy the paraxial wave equation, when the free-spacemodes are evaluated at the optical beam waist. The explicitdependence on the Rayleigh length

z

R

in Eq.

deﬁnes aspeciﬁc form for the dielectric proﬁle in which a free-spaceLaguerre-Gaussian mode with waist size

w

0

deﬁned here asthe r.m.s. radius of the Gaussian ﬁeld proﬁle

will propagateas a guided eigenmode of the virtual dielectric. In this con-struct, if the guiding features of the

e

-beam in an FEL duringexponential gain are equivalent to those of the QIM, only asingle mode in the expansion is required to fully describe thesupermode.The axial wave numbers of the QIM eigenmodes in Eq.

differ from the wave numbers of vacuum paraxial modes

. The waves are modiﬁed both in the total wave num-ber by the presence of the homogeneous dielectric contribu-tion

kn

0

, and by a transverse wave number factor attributedto the guided focusing of the paraxial wave due to the para-bolic spatial dependence. Inserting Eq.

and

into Eq.

we obtain the axial wave number associated with eachguided mode

k

zq

=

k

z

;

p

,

l

:

k

z

;

p

,

l

2

=

k

2

n

02

−4

w

02

2

p

+

l

+ 1

.

7

This describes modal dispersion in the virtual dielectricwherein each mode propagates with an axial phase velocity

/

k

z

;

p

,

l

.Since the axial ﬁeld component of the LG modes has amagnitude on the order of

/

w

0

times as large as the asso-ciated transverse component, the ﬁelds can be considered tobe dominantly transverse. For TE modes, we then have asimple relation between the electric and magnetic compo-nents:

E

˜

q

=−

/

k

zq

eˆ

z

B

˜

q

. The mode power, deﬁned as

P

q

=

1

2

Re

E

˜

q

r

H

˜

q

r

·

eˆ

z

d

2

r

becomes

P

p

,

l

=

k

z

;

p

,

l

2

0

A

˜

p

,

l

2

.

8

The dielectric mode coupling parameter

q

,

q

d

in Eq.

isdeﬁned in general in paper I, and can be evaluated explicitlyusing the LG basis

p

,

l

,

p

,

l

d

=

k

2

2

k

z

;

p

,

l

l

,

l

n

02

− 1

p

,

p

−2

w

02

k

2

p

!

p

!

p

+

l

!

p

+

l

!

j

=0

p

j

=0

p

p

+

l

l

+

j

p

+

l

l

+

j

− 1

j

+

j

+

p

+

p

j

+

j

+

l

+ 1

!

j

!

j

!

,

9

where

n

k

=

n

!

/

k

!

n

−

k

! is the binomial coefﬁcient. We notethat, since

n

2

r

is axisymmetric,

p

,

l

,

p

,

l

d

vanishes be-tween modes with different azimuthal dependence

l

l

.Analytic expressions for the beam proﬁle overlap factor

F

q

,

q

can be found for many functional

e

-beam proﬁle distri-butions. Here, the

e

-beam is assumed to have a ﬁxed, Gauss-ian transverse proﬁle

f

r

=exp

−

r

2

/

r

02

throughout the in-teraction length, where

r

0

is the r.m.s. radius. In terms of theLG mode expansion basis,

F

q

,

q

becomes

F

p

,

l

,

p

,

l

=

A

˜

p

,

l

A

˜

p

,

l

l

,

l

− 1

p

+

p

p

!

p

!

p

+

l

!

p

+

l

!

p

+

p

+

l

!

w

02

2

r

02

p

+

p

w

02

2

r

02

+ 1

p

+

p

+

l

+1

2

F

1

−

p

;−

p

;−

p

−

p

−

l

;1 −

2

r

02

w

02

2

,

10

where

2

F

1

a

;

b

;

c

;

x

=

n

=0

a

n

b

n

x

n

/

c

n

n

! is the hypergeo-metric series and

a

n

=

a

a

+1

a

+2

¯

a

+

n

−1

is the ris-ing factorial. For a single Gaussian EM mode,

F

0,0

,

0,0

=1

/

1+

w

02

2

r

02

. The

e

-beam mode coupling parameter

Q

q

,

q

isthus

Q

p

,

l

,

p

,

l

=

JJ

p

2

k

z

;

p

,

l

+

k

w

2

8

k

z

;

p

,

l

K

2

gˆ

p

,

l

gˆ

p

,

l

F

p

,

l

,

p

,

l

.

11

For modes where the electric-ﬁeld polarization matches thedirection of wiggling motion of the electrons

gˆ

p

,

l

=1. This“polarization matched” condition is assumed throughout theremainder of this paper.Equations

–

are the individual elements of the cou-pling and overlap terms in the FEL evolution and excitationequations in Eq.

, solved speciﬁcally using the guided LGmode basis. With these terms, the eigensolution of Eq.

forthe dominant FEL supermode can be found as a superposi-tion of LG modes. The supermode emerges during high-gainand propagates self-similarly and with an exponentiallygrowing ﬁeld amplitude. Accordingly, the supermode ﬁeld isdeﬁned as

E

˜

SM

r

=

e

ik

SM

z

p

,

l

b

p

,

l

E

˜

p

,

l

r

and maintains a ﬁxedtransverse proﬁle given by the constant mode coefﬁcients

b

p

,

l

and the distinct complex wave number

k

SM

=

k

+

k

˜

. Themodiﬁcation of the free-space wave number due the FELinteraction is given by

k

˜

, and is found from the solution tothe supermode matrix equation

I

k

˜

−

2

−

p

2

M

I

k

˜

+

d

−

k

=

+

Q

b

= 0

,

12

where the matrix elements of

M

are given by

M

q

,

q

=

k

zq

/

k

zq

F

q

,

q

, and the matrices

d

and

Q

are comprisedof the elements in Eqs.

and

, respectively. The param-eter

is the detuning in a 1D model and the matrix

k

=

has elements

k

z

;

p

,

l

−

k

p

,

p

l

,

l

. The dominant mode of the

VIRTUAL DIELECTRIC ... . II. MODELING AND ... PHYSICAL REVIEW A

77

, 063831

2008

063831-3

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