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Assignment Theory

Assignment Theory

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More Notes and Projects and Resources for BMS and MBA students available athttp://www.ManagementParadise.com
All Content Copyright © 2004 – 2006.
PROF PARSHURAM 2660 67 80/2660 58 14ASSIGNMENT THEORY( For pvt. circulation – not for sale) © 1)
When do we say that an Assignment problem is unbalanced? How do you balance it? 
Ans: (a)
Unbalanced Assignment Problem:
Whenever the pay
off matrix of an assignment problem is
a square matrix i.e. no. of rows is
not equal to
the no. of columns, the assignment problem is called an unbalanced assignmentproblem. E.g. 5 workers are to be assigned to 6 machines or 6 salesmen to be assigned to 5territories etc. In such cases,
rows or columns are added to the matrix to make it asquare matrix. E.g. in the first case above, dummy row is required to be added and in thesecond case, a dummy column required to be added a square (6 x 6) matrix. The elements ofthe dummy rows or column are all taken as zero. The usual Hungarian method can then theapplied on this balanced or square matrix to obtain the optimal solution.(b) In case the problem is unbalanced maximisation problem, we first convert the maximisationproblem into minimization problem by subtracting each element of the matrix from maximumelement.
Explain a simple (N x N) mathematical assignment problem of Operations Research.
A simple N x N mathematical assignment problem:
An assignment problem deals with allocation of various resources to different activities on a one to one basis insuch a way that the resultant effectiveness is optimized. There are many decision making situations, whereassignment technique can be used. E.g. Assignment of available vehicles to routes, machine to jobs,contracts to bidders etc.The assignment problem can be conveniently represented in the form of (N x N) matrix (C
), known as
costmatrix or effectiveness matrix.Activity1 2
- - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - C
- - - - - - - - - C
| | | || | | |
- - - - - - - - - C
Each row corresponds to the availability of a resource such as man, vehicle, product, salesman etc.Each column represents different activities to be performed such as jobs, routes, factories, territoriesetc.Entries in the matrix i.e. C
represents cost (or time or distance) of assigning i
source to the j
activity (
i, j
= 1, 2,….N).The essential characteristics of the assignment problem is that N resources are to be assigned to Nactivities such that each resource is allocated to only one activity and such that each activity is performed byone resources only. The allocation is to be done in such way so as to minimize the resulting total cost (or time ordistance). Any solution of such a problem has exactly N assignments cells, each row and each column containingexactly one assignment cell.
Explain the Hungarian Method for solving on Assignment Problem.
Hungarian Method for solving on Assignment Problem:
More Notes and Projects and Resources for BMS and MBA students available athttp://www.ManagementParadise.com
All Content Copyright © 2004 – 2006.
In the following procedure Step 1 is applied on the given assignment matrix and each of the subsequentsteps is applied on the matrix obtained in the earlier step.
PROF PARSHURAM 2660 67 80/2660 58 14ASSIGNMENT THEORY( For pvt. circulation – not for sale) © 
Step 1: Subtract smallest element in each row from every element of that row.Step 2:
Subtract smallest element in each column from every element of that column.Step 3: (a) Examine the rows of the matrix successively until a row containing exactly onezero is found. Enclose this zero in a box () as an assignment will be made atthis position. Cancel (x) all other zeros appearing in the corresponding column.Proceed in this way till all the rows are examined.(b) On the similar lines examine the columns successively making an assignmentfor the single zero whenever it is found and canceling all zeros appearing in thecorresponding row.Repeat (a) and (b) successively until all the zeros of the matrix are either assigned or cancelled.Step 4: If the number of assignments in the matrix is same as the order of the matrix (i.e. Nassignments for N x N matrix), the optimum solution is reached. If not, proceed to stepStep 5: Draw minimum number of vertical and horizontal lines necessary to cover all the zeros(assigned and cancelled) of the matrix obtained in step 3.This can be done as follows:(i) Marks (
) all rows that do not have assignments.(ii) Marks (
) all columns, which have zeros in the marked rows.(iii) Marks (
) all rows, which have assignments in the marked columnsRepeat (ii) and (iii) till further marking is not possible. Then draw lines throughunmarked rows and marked columns.Step 6: Select smallest element from all the uncovered elements. Subtract this smallestelement from all the uncovered elements and add it to the elements, which lie at theintersection of horizontal and vertical lines. Remaining elements of the matrix areunchanged.Step 7: Repeat step 3 and 4 until an optimum solution is reached.
What are the various variations in an Assignment Problem?
Sometimes, an assignment problem deals with the maximization of an objective function rather than tominimize it. For example, it may be required to assign persons to jobs in such a way that the expectedprofit is maximum. Such a problem can be solved easily by first converting it into a minimization type of aproblem, and then applying the usual procedure of assignment algorithm. This conversion can be veryeasily done by subtracting from the highest element, all the elements of the given profit matrix; orequivalently, by placing minus – sign before each element of the profit-matrix in order to make it a costmatrix.
More Notes and Projects and Resources for BMS and MBA students available athttp://www.ManagementParadise.com
All Content Copyright © 2004 – 2006.
Restrictions on Assignment 
Sometimes, technical, legal or other restrictions do not permit the assignment of a particular facility to aparticular job. Such difficulty can be overcome by assigning a very high cost (say, infinite cost) to thecorresponding cell, so that the activity will be automatically excluded from the optimum solution.
PROF PARSHURAM 2660 58 14/2660 67 80(For pvt. circulation only – not for sale) © 
Sensitivity in Assignment Problems 
The structure of an assignment problem is of such a type that there is very little scope for sensitivityanalysis. Modest alterations in the conditions ( such as “
man being able to do
jobs” ) can beconsidered by
the man’s row and then
column, in order to obtain a
Formulation of an Assignment Problem as a linear (integer) programming problem, or, solving Assignment Problem by the Simplex Method 
 job jtheassignednotispersontheif,  job jtheassignedispersontheif, x
The mathematical formulation of the assignment problem is given as follows:Minimise Z =
= =
1 1 j
subject to the constraintsi) Each person must be assigned to
one and only one job
, i.e.,x
+ x
i 2
+ …… + x
i n
= 1 ,
= 1 , 2 , … nii) Each job must be assigned to
one and only one person
, i.e.,x
1 j
+ x
2 j
+ ……. + x
n j
= 1,
= 1, 2, ….niii) x
i j
0 or 1, for all i , j
In the above mathematical formulation,No. of decision variables = n x nNo. of equalities = n + n= 2 nEg: If there are 6 workers and 6 jobs, thenNo. of decision variables = 6 x 6 = 36No. of equalities = 6 + 6 = 12

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