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English, Literary Terms

English, Literary Terms

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05/30/2013

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1http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ 
IB English IVLiterary Style Terms
Contents:
 
General
 
Dramatic Plot Structure
 
Drama-Specific
 
Poetry-SpecificGeneral
 Allegory:
a story that may be applied to another, parallel, set of situations while maintaining its ownnarrative integrity; serves as an extended metaphor
 Alliteration:
repetition of identical consonant sounds in different words in close proximity (see
assonance
,
consonance,
and
sibilance
)
 Allusion:
references (usually unacknowledged) to literary works, persons, sayings, and other elements of our cultural heritage
 Anaphora:
deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses,clauses, or paragraphs (see
repetition)
 
 Antithesis:
a balancing or contrasting of one term against another
 Apostrophe:
the addressing of discourse to a real or imagined person who is not present (may havedied); a speech to an animate object
 Assonance:
similarity or repetition of a vowel sound in two or more words (versus
consonance
)
Cacophony:
words combining consonant sounds that do not permit an easy flow of pronunciation, butrather produce sharpness or harshness
Catalogue
: long rhetorical list or inventory—traditional epic device
Chiasmus:
a rhetorical sentence pattern (or even a larger pattern) repeating in the sequence A-B-B-A,such as “I know she loves me, but she loves to keep me from knowing it.”
Comedy:
literary work beginning in adversity and ending in prosperity that describes the regenerationand success of a group or society
Comedy of Humors:
exposes and ridicules the humors (excesses and eccentricities) of characters in order to reform them
Comedy of Manners:
usually high comedy, in which the social conventions of society areexamined and satirized
Comedy of the Absurd:
modern form of comedy that dramatizes the absurdities of existenceand ends ambiguously
 
2http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ 
IB English IVLiterary Style Terms
Conceit:
an elaborate or unusual comparison, using unlikely metaphors, similes, imagery, hyperbole,and oxymora, such as Shakespeare’s comparison in
Richard II
of two kings competing for power as twobuckets in a well
Connotation:
the emotional, psychological, or social overtones or implications that words carry inaddition to their standard dictionary meaning (versus
denotation
)
Consonance:
repetition of identical or similar consonants in neighboring words whose vowel soundsare different (versus
assonance
)
Denotation:
standard dictionary meaning of a word (versus
connotation
)
Dichotomy:
division into two exclusive, opposed, or contradictory groups
Diction:
word choice, type of words, and level of language
Dissonance:
discord or incongruity of sounds
Double Entendre:
deliberate ambiguity as to the meaning of a phrase, with one meaning beingstraightforward and another meaning often being risqué
Elision:
the omitting of one or more sounds in a word, may be used to portray a character’s actualspeech or to preserve a rhythm in poetry; contractions are examples of elision
Epanalepsis:
where a phrase begins and ends with the same wording, lending emphasis; “He isnoticeable for nothing in the world except for the markedness by which he is noticeable for nothing”from Poe’s “The Literati of New York City”
Epigraph:
motto or quotation at the beginning of a book, poem, chapter, etc. that often indicates thetheme
Epithet:
a word or phrase added to or substituted for the name of a deity or person
Eponym:
a name (from a person, real or fictitious) so commonly associated with the attributes of itsowner that it comes to symbolize those attributes; Benedict Arnold is associated with treason
Equivocate:
to use ambiguous or unclear expressions, usually to mislead and deceive
Hyperbole:
use of exaggeration or overstatement to heighten effect, not to be taken literally
Imagery:
literary references to sensory impressions, making for immediacy and vividness; forms of compressed representation that work through comparison, allusion, or suggestion; tactile (touch),olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), kinesthetic (sensations of movement)
 
3http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ 
IB English IVLiterary Style Terms
Irony:
awareness by author, character, or reader of a contrast or difference between the way thingsseem and the way they are
Dramatic:
special type of situational irony in which a character perceives his or her plight inone way, while the spectator and one or more of the other characters understand it in a greaterperspective
Situational:
type of irony emphasizing that human beings are enmeshed in forces beyond theircomprehension or control
Verbal:
language stating the opposite of what is meant
Cosmic:
situational irony that is connected to a pessimistic or fatalistic view of life
Litotes:
means of expressing the affirmative by denying the contrary; deliberate understatement, suchas “she is not so unkind” to mean “she is kind”
Metaphor:
an implied comparison of two usually unlike things
Metonymy:
substitution of a word naming an object for another word closely associated with it, suchas Washington being used as a metonym for the American government
Onomatopoeia:
the use of a word to represent or imitate natural sounds
Oxymoron:
two terms that in ordinary usage are contraries; effective combination of contradictory orincongruous words
Parable:
brief and often simple narrative designed to illustrate a moral or religious truth
Paradox:
concept that seems to be self-contradictory or absurd, yet on closer scrutiny, the apparentcontradiction disappears and the statement is found to be truly meaningful
Parallelism:
a rhetorical figure in which the same grammatical forms are repeated in two or morephrases, lines of verse, or sentences
Persona:
the narrator or storyteller of a work created by the author; may be a character or anonymousonlooker invented for artistic purposes
Personification:
an inanimate object or an abstract concept is spoken of as though it were endowedwith life or with human attributes or feelings
Prose Fiction:
novels, short stories, and shorter prose works that generally focus on one or a few characters who undergo some sort of change as they encounter other characters or deal with someproblem
Prose Poem:
a short work, written in prose, but employing the methods of verse, such as imagery, forpoetic ends

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