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Microprocessor

Microprocessor

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Published by: ali subhi on Sep 08, 2010
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09/16/2011

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Lecture 1 -Introduction to Microprocessors
Objective
: 1.General Architecture of a Microcomputer System2. Types of Microprocessors3. Number Systems------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. General Architecture of a Microcomputer System
The hardware of a microcomputer system can be divided into fourfunctional sections: the
Input unit 
,
Microprocessing Unit 
,
Memory Unit 
, and
Output Unit 
. See Fig. 1Figure 1
M
icro
P
rocessor
U
nit (
MPU
) is the heart of a microcomputer. Amicroprocessor is a general purpose processing unit built into a singleintegrated circuit (IC).The Microprocessor is the part of the microcomputer that executesinstructions of the program and processes data. It is responsible forperforming all arithmetic operations and making the logical decisionsinitiated by the computer’s program. In addition to arithmetic andlogic functions, the MPU controls overall system operation.
Input and Output units are the means by which the MPUcommunicates with the outside world.
o
Input unit: keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc.
o
Output unit: monitor, printer, etc.
Memory unit:
o
Primary: is normally smaller in size and is used for temporarystorage of active information. Typically ROM, RAM.
o
Secondary: is normally larger in size and used for long-termstorage of information. Like Hard disk, Floppy, CD, etc.
Memory UnitPrimary Storage UnitSecondary StorageUnit
MPU
OutputInputUnitDataStorageMemoryProgramStorageMemory
 
2. Types of Microprocessors
Microprocessors generally is categorized in terms of the maximum numberof binary bits in the data they process that I, their word length. Over time,five standard data widths have evolved for microprocessors: 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit.There are so many manufacturers of Microprocessors, but only twocompanies have been produces popular microprocessors:
Intel 
and
Motorola 
. Table 1 lists some of types that belong to these companies(families) of microprocessors.
Table 1: Some Types of Microprocessors:
TypeData buswidthMemory size
Intel family:8085864K
8086
161M802861616M80386EX , 80386DX 16 , 3264M , 4G80486DX4324G + 16K cachePentium 644G + 16K cachePentiumIII , Pentium46464G+32K L1 cache +256 L2cacheMotorola family:6800864K68060644G + 16K cache
Note that the 8086 has data bus width of 16-bit, and it is able to address1Megabyte of memory.It is important to note that 80286, 80386,80486, and Pentium-Pentium4microprocessors are
upward compatible
with the 8086 Architecture. Thismean that 8086/8088 code will run on the 80286, 80386, 80486, andPentium Processors, but the reverse in not true if any of the new instructionsare in use.Beside to the
general-purpose 
microprocessors, these families involveanother type called
special-purpose 
microprocessors that used inembedded control applications. This type of embedded microprocessors iscalled
microcontroller.
The 8080, 8051, 8048, 80186, 80C186XL are someexamples of microcontroller.
3. Number Systems
 
For Microprocessors, information such as
instruction 
,
data 
and
addresses 
are described with numbers. The types of numbers are not normally thedecimal numbers we are familiar with; instead, binary and hexadecimalnumbers are used. Table 2 shows Binary and Hexadecimal representationsfor some decimal numbers.
Table 1: Binary, and Hexadecimal representation of some numbers:
DecimalBinaryHexadecimal0001112102311341004510156110671117810008910019101010A111011B121100C131101D141110E151111F
Example 1:
Evaluate the decimal equivalent of binary number 101.01
2
Solution:
101.01
2
= 1(2
2
) + 0(2
1
) + 1(2
0
) + 0(2
-1
) + 1(2
-2
)= 1(4) + 0(2) + 1(1) + 0(0.5) + 1(0.25)= 4 + 0 +1 + 0 + 0.25= 5.25
Example2:
Evaluate the binary representation of decimal number 8.875
Solution:
IntegerFraction8/2=0(LSB)0.875x2=1 (MSB)4/2=00.75x2=12/2=00.5x2=1(LSB)1/2=1(MSB)0x2=00/2=00x2=00/2=00x2=0

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