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7.6 - Enzymes

7.6 - Enzymes

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes for enzymes. Introduction to activation energy and active sites.
IB Biology notes for enzymes. Introduction to activation energy and active sites.

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Published by: IB Screwed on Sep 08, 2010
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05/19/2014

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7.6
 –
 Enzymes
7.6.1 - State that metabolic pathways consist of chains and cycles of enzyme-catalysed reactions
Metabolic pathways form a
series of reactions
 that regulate the concentration of substances within cells by enzyme-mediated linear and circular sequences. Respiration and photosynthesis are examples of a metabolic pathway (see below). All these reactions may be classified into two types.
Catabolic Reactions
This is the
breaking down
 of larger molecules, releasing energy. This is exergonic. Enzymes in these reactions will break apart the chemical bonds, and two molecules are formed. These reactions include digestion and cellular respiration.
Anabolic Reactions
This is when smaller molecules
form bonds
 and become larger molecules. This process requires energy, therefore it is endergonic. Enzymes will draw the smaller molecules in and help the new bonds to form. Examples include protein synthesis (build up of polypeptides from peptides) and cellular respiration.
 
Chain Pathways
 move from one reaction to the next. Each substrate has its own enzyme. The final product is called the end product.
Cyclic Pathways
 are when the initial substrate is fed into the cycle. The final product is reacted with the initial substrate. From here, the products are converted. The only difference in this pathway is the regeneration of the final intermediate. Examples of this type of pathway include Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle.
7.6.2 - Describe the induced fit model
In the more accurate,
induced fit model
, there is modification. Enzymes are fairly flexible, and will reshape the active site by interactions with the substrate. Hence, the substrate does simply bind to a rigid active site, but the amino acid side chains will mould into positions for the enzyme to perform its function.
 
This change in shape is critical to momentarily raise the substrate molecule to the transitional state, when it can react. This model also accounts for the range of substrates that some enzymes can bind to.
7.6.3 - Explain that enzymes lower the activation energy of the chemical reactions that they catalyse
The activation energy is the
minimum amount of energy
 required to raise substrate molecules to their transition state. The reaction cannot happen until this energy barrier has been overcome. The use of an enzyme reduces the amount of this energy that is needed. The transition state is when the bonds in the reactant molecules break and begin to form the bonds of the products. Since breaking bonds is an endothermic process, the reactants require some energy to be added before they can start making the new bonds and begin the reaction. This amount of energy is the
activation energy
. Enzymes work by providing an alternative reaction pathway that requires a lower activation energy. The frequency of collision between molecules increases, speeding up the reaction.

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