Curtin Sarawak 1
International Symposium on Geology (ISG1-2009
Utilizing innovative technologies for sustainable Energy Resources 2009” (5
38during beneficiation of minerals. Mine may haveimpact on the physical, chemical and biologicalattributes of surrounding environment.Environmental impact is any alteration of environmental condition or creation of new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial,caused or induced by the action or set of actionsunder consideration (EPA, 1989). TheEnvironmental Impact Analysis (EIA) shouldcontain an analysis of the proposed action,alternative actions and associated impacts on theenvironment. The basic objective of Environmental Impact Assessment andEnvironmental Management Plan (EMP) exerciseis to minimize adverse impacts of anydevelopment on the environment (EGI, 1985;Abasis and Arya, 2000). This environmentalimpact assessment was carried out for theMadukkarai Limestone Mine owned by TheAssociated Cement Companies Limited located atMadukkarai in Coimbatore District of Tamilnadu,which is quarrying the lime stone from the year1934 to till the day and proposed to mine up to theyear 2020 and may be renewed in future.Therefore, this thesis attempts to assess the RapidEnvironmental impacts of Limestone mining andthe preparation of Environmental ManagementPlan for the proposed and expansion of theMadukkarai limestone mines.II.
To assess the environmental impacts of limestone mining in the proposed expansion of Madukkarai Limestone Mine, reconnaissancesurvey was conducted and sampling locationswere identified on the basis of Topography,location of surface water bodies like ponds,canals and rivers; baseline data were collectedand various environmental factors wereconsidered for this study. Field was conducted fora period of three months (February 2003 to April2003 – partly winter, pre monsoon seasons) todetermine seasonal variation and also todetermine existing conditions of variousenvironmental attributes such as Ambient airquality (SPM, SO
, NOx), Meteorology, Waterquality, Ecology, Noise levels, Soilcharacteristics, Land use, Socio-Economicaspects, Geology and Hydrology etc. At theselected sites, soil samples were collected usingAuger/Core cutter. Approximately 2kg of samples were collected in polythene bags, sealedwell and transported to laboratory for analysis forits physico-chemical characteristics. Themethodology adopted for monitoring surfaceobservations is as per the standard norms laiddown by Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 8829),Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) andAPHA, 1977. On-site monitoring wasundertaken for various meteorological variablesin order to generate the site-specific data. TheCentral Monitoring Station (CMS) equipped withcontinuous monitoring equipment was installedon top of the existing limestone mines office at aheight of 4.0m above ground level to record windspeed, direction, relative humidity, temperatureand atmospheric pressure. Rainfall is monitoredby rain gauge. Hourly average, maximum andminimum values of wind speed, direction,relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressureand temperature have been recorded continuouslyat this station, for the study period starting from1
February to 25
April 2003, the abovegenerated Meteorological data were considered.Secondary information on meteorologicalconditions has been collected from the nearestIMD station at Coimbatore. Pressure,temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, cloudcover, wind speed and direction are measuredtwice a day viz., at 0830 and 1730 hr. The windspeed and direction data of IMD, Coimbatorestation has been obtained for the past available 10years (1993-2002). Ground water sourcescovering 5 km radial distance were examined forphysico-chemical parameters in order to assessthe effect of limestone mining and other activitieson ground water. The samples were collectedand analyzed as per the procedures specified in“Standard Method for the Examination of waterand waste water” published by American PublicHealth Association (1991) (APHA). The groundvibration was monitored within the mine leaseboundary to assess the impact of ground vibrationdue to mine blasting. 4493 V 2.5 Minimate
vibration measuring equipment of Fast FourierTransform (FFT) analyzer was used to measurethe status of the vibration levels at the time of blasting (Lenard, 1975).III.
Geography and Physiography
Limestone deposit at Madukkarai is located2.50 km away from Madukkarai Cement Works,which lies 10 km from Coimbatore and is onNational Highway – 47 connecting Cochin andSalem. Geographically the mining lease area(ML3) fall between the latitude 10° 55’ to 10° 56’and longitude 76° 56’ to 76° 59’ and are coveredon the survey of India Topo sheet no.58 B/13, 58F/1,58 A/16. Madukkarai block is bounded on thenorth by Perur, on the NE by Sulur, on the east bySultanpet, on the south by Kinathukadavu and onthe west side by Thondamuthur blocks of Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. The averageelevation ranges from 362m to 465m in the area.The topography is gently undulated andsurrounded by Calc – granulites hills. Ettimadai,