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Sample Lab Report Distillation of Ethyl Alcohol

Sample Lab Report Distillation of Ethyl Alcohol

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Published by: Lysandwr on Sep 09, 2010
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04/24/2013

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Simple Distillation of Ethyl Alcohol
We extracted alcohol from a fermentation product (burgundy wine) via a simple distillation process (ineffect distilling brandy) in order to then characterize the brandy by density, combustibility, and boiling  point. By extracting a series of samples we were able to determine the proof of our initial extraction and determine by comparison the quality of each successive sample. Our initial extraction sample proved to be134 proof (67%) alcohol. Our first and second samples were flammable, third and fourth samples would not combust and were apparently had very low if any alcohol percentage.
Introduction
The Simple Distilling process is an effective separation process for liquid mixtures withvery large boiling point differences. Ethyl Alcohol and H
2
O are particularly easy toseparate, as their boiling points are 78.5
o
C and 100
o
C respectively. This is an effectivemethod of increasing alcohol by volume in a beverage, as fermentation of sugars alonewill not produce greater than 12 to 15 %. We distill a wine (12 % alcohol by volume)sample and collect a series of samples, recording boiling points and determining densityof our primary fraction in order to determine the highest successful proof liquiddistilled by comparing results to known density charts for alcohol.
Experimental Data
Distilled burgundy wine sample in basic still apparatus:
 Applied heat to graduallyincreasetemperatureof distilling  flask contents from initial 24
o
C.
Collected initial  fraction (minimumvolume of 15 mL);recorded gram weight (mass) of 5 mL sampleand combustibility of  sample. Recorded start and finish collectiontemperatures toascertain boiling point.
 
 InitialFractionVol Mass Data for densitydetermination
5 mL 4.48 g
Collected  samples 2-4 (volumeeach approx. 10 mL);determined combustibility and other qualities of each. Recorded collectiontemperatures toascertain boiling  points.
 DistillateFractionsSample #1 Sample #2 Sample #3 Sample #4
o
CollectionTemperatures
74.583.084.087.087.090.090.091.0
Data Analysis
Density of initial fraction compared to tables of known alcohol % by volume determined thatsample was 67% or, by US standards, 134 proof.
Measured by analytic balance
: D (.896 g/mL) =
Mass (4.48 g)Volume (5.0 mL)
Margin for error of 5 mL pipette measurement method for volume is 1.01%. This difference isenough to cause the possible alcohol percentage of the sample to range from approx. 20 to 95 %.Due to the extremely high combustibility of sample fraction #1, analysis would conclude thatany error is more likely to have caused a lower % by volume determination than the actual.Characteristics of the sample fractions were determined as follows:
Fraction Av. Boil. Odor Quality of Flame Colour of Flame Other Observations
 
# Pt (C
o
)
(Combustibility) (Combustibility)
1 78.75
Faint, but like agood GrappaTranslucent, highand efficient (burned completely) Blue, barest hint of orange at end of materialconsumptionVery little to nomaterial left; appearsto be higher proof thandensity measurement indicated.
2 85.5
Much moregrapey.Still intense, esparound edges Blue, not as vivid,more orange.Faded more, left muchmore material.
3 88.5
Sour,unpleasant...spoilt wine. Not really. Tried to gasp out atiny yellow flame.This didn’t want toburn… tried to, thenextinguished the match
4 90.5
Sweeter, slightlywiney. NO combustion at all. N/A NO combustion at all,might as well havebeen pure water.
Conclusion
Even though our measurements indicate that our initial sample was only 67% ethyl alcohol, theinitial fraction sample burned off (as indicated above) completely with a high-temperature blueflame. This would imply a higher alcohol proof. The pipette transfer methodology has sufficientmargin for error that I cannot stand by our final determination of 134 proof but rather do believethe sample to have had a higher alcohol percentage by volume. The average boiling temperatureat which it was collected seems to support that conclusion, as well as the lack of combustibilityin samples three and four.
 
Post Lab Questions
1.Pure watevolume 150.14 mL(150/.9991)Pure Ethanol volume 189.11 mL (150/.7932)50% alcohol solution volume 160.69 (150/.9335)2.Density of agood beer (e.g.Guinness Draft, 6.5 %)= .990Density of bourbon (at 80 proof/40 %) = 0.951Will bourbon float on beer = absolutely yes!!

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