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Table Of Contents

1INTRODUCTION TO ROTATIONAL MOLDING
1.0 Introduction
1.1 The Process
1.2 The Early Days
1.3 Materials
1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages
References
2ROTATIONAL MOLDING POLYMERS
2.0 Introduction
2.1 General Characteristics of Polymers
2.2 Polymers as Powders and Liquids
2.3 Polyethylene Types
2.3.1Low-Density Polyethylene
2.3.2Medium-Density Polyethylene
2.3.3High-Density Polyethylene
2.3.4Linear Low-Density Polyethylene
2.3.5Ethylene Vinyl Acetate
2.4 Polypropylene
2.6 Nylons
2.7 Other Polymers
2.7.1Polycarbonate
2.7.2Cellulosics
2.7.3Acrylics
2.7.4Styrenics
2.8 Liquid Polymers
2.8.1PVC Plastisols
2.8.2Polycaprolactam
2.8.3Polyurethane
2.8.4Unsaturated Polyester Resin
2.8.5Silicones
2.9 In-Coming Material Evaluation
2.9.1Melt Index and Melt Flow Index
2.9.2Sieving
2.10.1Actual Part Testing — Protocol
2.10.2Actual Part Testing — Entire Parts
2.10.3Actual Part Testing — Sections
2.10.3.1Molded Part Density
2.10.3.2Drop Tests
2.10.3.4Color
2.10.3.5Chemical Tests
2.10.3.6Environmental Stress Crack Test
2.10.3.10Fire Retardancy
3GRINDING AND COLORING
3.0 Introduction
3.1 General Issues Relating to Grinding
3.2 Particle Size Distribution
3.5 Bulk Density
3.5.1Packing of Particles
3.6 Factors Affecting Powder Quality
3.6.1Gap Size
3.6.2Number of Mill Teeth
3.6.3Grinding Temperature
3.7 Grinding Costs
3.8 Micropelletizing
3.9 Polyvinyl Chloride
3.10Coloring of Plastics for Rotational Molding
3.10.1Dry Blending
3.10.2High Speed Mixing (Turbo Blending)
3.10.3Compounding
3.10.4Types of Pigments
3.10.5Aesthetics of Rotationally Molded Parts
3.10.6Other Types of Additives
4 ROTATIONAL MOLDING MACHINES
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Types of Rotational Molding Machines
4.1.1Rock-and-Roll Machines
4.1.2Clamshell Machines
4.1.3Vertical Machines
4.1.4Shuttle Machines
4.1.5Fixed-Arm Carousel Machine
4.1.6Independent-Arm Machine
4.1.7Oil Jacketed Machines
4.1.8Electrically Heated Machines
4.1.9Other Types of Machines
4.2 Machine Design Considerations
4.2.1Mold Swing
4.2.2Mold Speed
4.2.3Speed Ratio
4.3 The Oven
4.3.1Oven Design
4.3.2Heat Transfer in Oven
4.3.3Oven Air Flow Amplification
4.4 Cooling
4.5 Process Monitors
4.5.2Infrared Temperature Sensors
4.6 Servicing
4.7 Advanced Machine Design
5MOLD DESIGN
5.1Mold Materials
5.1.1Sheet Steel
5.1.2Aluminum
5.1.3Electroformed Nickel
5.2.1Equivalent Mechanical Thickness
5.2.2Equivalent Static Thermal Thickness
5.2.3Equivalent Transient Thermal Thickness
5.3.1Parting Line Design
5.3.1.1Butt or Flat
5.3.1.2Lap Joint
5.3.1.3Tongue-and-Groove
5.3.1.4Gaskets
5.3.2Mold Frame
5.3.3Clamping
5.3.4Pry Points
5.3.5.1Self-tapping Screws
5.3.5.2Mechanical Fastening
5.3.5.3Postmolded Insert
5.3.5.4Molded-in Insert
5.3.6Threads
5.3.7Cut-out Areas
5.3.8Kiss-offs
5.3.9Molded-in Handles
5.3.10Temporary Inserts
5.4Calculation of Charge Weight
5.4.1Methodology
5.5.1Simple Estimate for Vent Size
5.5.2Types of Vent
5.5.3Is a Vent Necessary?
5.6Mold Surface Finish
5.7Mold Releases
5.7.1Spray-on Zinc Stearates
5.7.2Silicones
5.7.3Disiloxanes
5.7.4Fluoropolymers
5.7.5Mold Surfaces to be Coated
5.7.6Controlled Release
5.7.7Mold Release Cost
6PROCESSING
6.0 Introduction to Heating
6.1 General Anatomy of the Rotational Molding Cycle
6.2 General Process Description
6.5 Rheology of Powder Flow
6.6 Heat Transfer Concepts Applied to Rotational Molding
6.7 Heating the Mold
6.8 Heating Powder
6.8.1Transient Heating of an Individual Particle
6.8.2Heating the Powder Bed
6.9 Tack Temperature
6.11Bed Depletion
6.12Particle Coalescence
6.13Densification
6.14Phase Change During Heating
6.15The Role of Pressure and Vacuum
6.16Mathematical Modeling of the Heating Process
6.17Total Oven Cycle Time
6.19Some Comments on Heat Transfer During Cooling
6.20Thermal Profile Inversion
6.21Cooling and Recrystallization
6.22Air Cooling — Heat Removal Rate
6.23Water Cooling — Heat Removal Rate
6.24Pressurization
6.25Part Removal*
6.26Effect of Wall Thickness on Cooling Cycle Time
6.28Introduction to Liquid Rotational Molding
6.29Liquid Polymers
6.30Liquid Rotational Molding Process
6.30.1Liquid Circulating Pool
6.30.2Cascading Flow
6.30.3Rimming Flow
6.30.4Solid Body Rotation
6.30.5Hydrocyst Formation
6.30.6Bubble Entrainment
6.30.7Localized Pooling
6.31Process Controls for Liquid Rotational Molding
6.32Foam Processing
6.32.1Chemical Blowing Agent Technology
6.32.2.1One-Step Process
6.32.2.2Two-Step Process
6.32.2.3Drop Boxes — Inside or Out?
6.32.2.4Containerizing Inner Layers
7.0 Introduction
7.1 Design Philosophy
7.2 General Design Concepts
7.3 Mechanical Design
7.3.1Three-Point Flexural Beam Loading
7.3.2Cantilever Beam Loading
7.3.3Column Bending
7.3.4Plate Edge Loading
7.3.5Hollow Beam with Kiss-Off Loading
7.3.7Temperature-Dependent Properties
7.4 Design Properties of Foams
7.4.1Uniform Density Foams
7.4.2Multilayer or Skin-Core Foams
7.5 Computer-Aided Engineering in Rotational Molding
7.5.1CAD/CAM in Rotational Molding
7.5.2Computer-Aided Stress Analysis
7.6 Some General Design Considerations
7.6.1Uniformity in Wall Thickness
7.6.2Shrinkage During Cooling
7.6.3General Shrinkage Guidelines
7.6.4Effect of Pressurization
7.6.5Draft Angles and Corner Angles
7.6.6Warpage Guidelines
7.6.7Corner Radii — The Michelin Man
7.6.7.1Right-Angled Corners
7.6.7.2Acute-Angled Corners
7.6.8Parallel Walls
7.6.9Spacing and Bridging
7.7 Process Effects on Porosity, Impact Strength
7.8 Trimming
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Rotational Molding Technology

Rotational Molding Technology

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Published by: sasikannan84 on Sep 09, 2010
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10/24/2012

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