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Timeline of American Occupation

Timeline of American Occupation



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Published by Hannibal F. Carado

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Published by: Hannibal F. Carado on Sep 09, 2010
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The Philippine-American War has been described as the United States first Vietnam Warbecause of its brutality and severity. According to the Philippine-American War CentennialInitiative (PAWCI), roughly 22,000 Philippine soldiers and half a million civilians were killedbetween 1899 and 1092 in Luzon and the Visayan Islands, while one hundred thousandMuslims were killed in Mindanao.The United States joined the ranks of colonial powers in Asia with support from AmericanExpansionists and Protestant missionaries, but over the objections of domestic tobacco andsugar producers. Strategic interests proved most decisive in the age of Alfred Thayer Mahanstreatise on the necessity of naval power. The United States was pursuing an Open Doorpolicy in China, and the possession of coaling stations was imperative to a would-be Pacificpower.Benevolent AssimilationImperialism was difficult to square with the countrysrepublican tradition, as the noisy Anti-Imperialist Leaguekept reminding Americans. US leaders also had tocontend with the likes of Mabini and other ilustrados,despite the prevailing lens of racism that tended to seeFilipinos as uncivilized or savage. This difficult realitycompelled the new colonizers to demonstrate that theirrule would be better than Spains or that of any Europeanpower.The result was President McKinleys benevolent assimilation  the American promise to trainFilipinos in democratic governance until they were ready to govern themselves. But the first order of business was to achieve control over the country.1896 August 23 Philippine Revolution Begins1897 March 4 William McKinley inaugurated 25
President of the United States1898 February 9 De Lomes letter came out of the pressFebruary 15 The American battleship Maine exploded near the port of Havana. Out of the 350 passengers, 266 died and many otherswere wounded. April 11 McKinley asked Congress to declare war. April 16 Army began mobilization. Teller Amendment was passed inCongress stating that the US would not annex Cuba. April 23 McKinley issued call for 125,000 volunteers. Spain declared war April 25 US declared war with Spain but made the declaration retroactiveto April 22 April 27 Commodore Deweys squadron left Mirs Bay, China for thePhilippines.May 1 Dewey defeated the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Manila Bay.
May 19 Emilio Aguinaldo returned from exile.May 25 McKinley issued a call for 75,000 more volunteers. The first army expedition left San Francisco for Manila.June 18 Aguinaldo issued a proclamation establishing a revolutionarygovernment and a message to foreign powers announcing that government.June 30 The first batch of American soldiers arrived in Manila under thecommand of Brig. General Thomas M. Anderson. August 12 Spain and the US signed the peace protocol which ended thewar. August 13 Capitulation of Manila to the Americans.September 15 Filipino Congress met at MalolosDecember 10 US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris1899 January 22 Malolos Constitution was promulgatedFebruary 4 Filipino-American was beganMarch 31 Malolos fell into the hands of the Americans. August 29 General Elwell Otis succeeded General Merritt in command.May 2 The Schurman Commission arrived in ManilaNovember 13 Aguinaldo disbanded the organized army and resorted toguerilla warfare.1900 May 5 General Arthur McArthur succeeded General Merritt ascommander of the American army.June 3 The Taft Commission arrived in Manila.June 21 General McArthur issued a proclamation of amnesty to all whorenounced the Filipino aspiration for independence andaccepted American rule.1901 March 10 The Taft Commission conducted provincial sorties in SouthernLuzon. They visited 18 provinces and returned to Manila onMay 3.March 23 Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan, Isabela. April 1 The Commission issued a decree that property and funds of theinsurgents would be confiscated if they did not surrender andthat they be deprived of any position in the government, nopeace no job. April 19 Aguinaldo swore allegiance to the US government.July 4 Taft was inaugurated first civil governor of the Philippines andGeneral Chaffee replaced General McArthur. August The Taft Commission conducted another provincial sortie toestablish civil government in several towns in Northern Luzon. August 21 The military transport S.S. Thomas arrived in Manila with 540 American school teachers aboard.September 6 President McKinley was shot in Buffalo, New York and died aftereight days (September 14)September 28 Forty four American soldiers were massacred in Balangiga,Samar the worst blow to the American campaign in thePhilippines.1902 April 27 Vicente Lukban, the last recognized rebel leader was captured.

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