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Published by Deepanshu Yadav

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Published by: Deepanshu Yadav on Sep 09, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Automatic street light controller:
In this project we use two logic. One is light sensitive logic andsecond is road sensor logic. When sensor is in dark then all thelights are on and when sensor is in light then all the lights are off. This is done by the light sensor (LDR). LDR is a light dependentresistor, when light fall on the LDR then it offers a low resistanceand when it is in dark.Output LEDs are connected with the port 0through the resistance in series; here in this we use 6 LEDs.Common point of the LED is connected with the positive line.Our second part of this project is infra red sensor. In this logicwhen any car cross the first IR sensor then all the led are on and if the traffic continuous then led are on if no car on the road thenagain three LEDs are on and three are off.In the electronic circuit of the projectbasically we use two infrared sensors & two photodiodes at boththe ends viz. Entering end & exit end. Both IR sensors &photodiode are placed in front of each other in order to form a
beam. Both photodiodes are also connected with the two separateIC 555 which is a timer working in mono-stable mode. In attachwith the timer & photodiode we use an up & down counter whichis used to increase or decrease the pulse input and display it onthe seven-segment display. Now after that we are using a 4-bitbinary comparator to compare the total number of vehicles goingthrough the road and finally we are using a relay circuit tointerface the main light or street lights. Relay provides a highvoltage to the street light for proper working.
Here we are going to explain actual working of the circuit. See inthis after getting input voltage signals from the battery via diodecircuit. Now that output is about 9V is given to the regulatorwhose function is to regulate the voltage and produce 5V supplyfor the further components of the circuit. Here we are also using1000µF capacitor which is used to filter out the ripples and noisein the output of diode. Now as the connection between regulatorand timer is shown, the output from the regulator is coming to the
555 timer at pin no. 8. In the 555 timer pin 8 is connected to thepositive supply and pin 1 is connected with the negative supply orwe can say it is grounded. Pin no. 2 is connected with thephotodiode via 22kΩ resistor. See normally when we switch onthe circuit both infrared sensors is on & also light falls on thephotodiode and makes a beam between them. So any vehicleenters the road from the entering end and crosses the beam &hence the beam interrupts due to which the resistance of photodiode becomes so high & resistance of 33kΩ resistorbecomes so low. So all this results in supplying the negativevoltage input to the 555 timer at entering end and makes it activeand note at the same time 2nd 555 timer will be in disable modeand then when same vehicle will cross the road from exit endresulting in this time the interruption of second beam which inresults making the 2nd timer active while 1st one in disablemode. Note both timers cannot switch on at the same time. Thisalternate switching on & off of first and second timer provides theup and down pulses to the counter.In each of the 555 timer pin no. 6 & pin no. 7 is connectedwith the 15kΩ resistor and 33 mfd capacitor. These are used so

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