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Flouride - USDA Database of Selected Foods

Flouride - USDA Database of Selected Foods

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Published by PRMurphy
USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods Prepared by Nutrient Data Laboratory,
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture
in collaboration with University of Minnesota, Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) University of Iowa, College of Dentistry Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Food Analysis Laboratory Control Center National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), CSREES, USDA and
Food Composition Laboratory (FCL), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods Prepared by Nutrient Data Laboratory,
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture
in collaboration with University of Minnesota, Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) University of Iowa, College of Dentistry Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Food Analysis Laboratory Control Center National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), CSREES, USDA and
Food Composition Laboratory (FCL), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: PRMurphy on Sep 09, 2010
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01/30/2013

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USDA
 
National Fluoride Database of SelectedBeverages and Foods
 Prepared by
Nutrient Data LaboratoryBeltsville Human Nutrition Research Center Agricultural Research ServiceU.S. Department of Agriculture
in collaboration with
University of Minnesota, Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC)
 
University of Iowa, College of DentistryVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Food AnalysisLaboratory Control Center 
 
National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), CSREES, USDA andFood Composition Laboratory (FCL), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture
October 2004
U.S. Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceBeltsville Human Nutrition Research Center Nutrient Data Laboratory10300 Baltimore AvenueBuilding 005, Room 107, BARC-WestBeltsville, Maryland 20705Tel. 301-504-0630, FAX: 301-504-0632E-Mail:ndlinfo@rbhnrc.usda.gov Web site:http://www/nal/usda/gov/fnic/foodcomp
 
 
 
i
 
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements..........................................................................................................iDisclaimers.......................................................................................................................iIntroduction.....................................................................................................................1Methods and procedures.................................................................................................2Data Generation..............................................................................................................2Data evaluation...............................................................................................................4Format of the table..........................................................................................................4Data dissemination..........................................................................................................6References cited in the documentation...........................................................................6References cited in the database....................................................................................8USDA National Fluoride Database................................................................................10
 Acknowledgements
This study was conducted as part of an Interagency Agreement between the U.S.Department of Agriculture, Nutrient Data Laboratory and The National Institute of Dental& Craniofacial Research and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of theNational Institutes of Health, NIH Agreement No. Y3-HV-8839
 
The authors wish to thank Dr. Nancy Miller-Ihli, FCL, USDA for her work on pilot studieswith drinking water and brewed tea, and development of NFDIAS quality controlmaterials. The authors also wish to thank the 144 participants nationwide who suppliedresidential drinking water samples for this study.
Disclaimers
Mention of tradenames, commercial products, or companies in this publication is solelyfor the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture over others not mentioned.
 
 
1
 
Documentation: USDA National Fluoride Database of SelectedBeverages and FoodsIntroduction
Assessment of fluoride intake is paramount in understanding the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism specifically the prevention of dental caries, dental fluorosis, andskeletal fluorosis. The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1997) specified Adequate Intakes (AI)of 0.01 mg/day for infants through 6 months, 0.05 mg/kg/day beyond 6 months of age,and 3 mg/day and 4 mg/day for adult women and men (respectively), to prevent dentalcaries. Upper limits (UL) of 0.10 mg/kg/day in children less than 8 years and 10 mg/dayfor those older than 8 years are recommended for prevention of dental fluorosis. Similar levels have been endorsed by the American Dental Association (ADA, 1994) and theAmerican Dietetic Association (ADA, 2000). Fluoride works primarily via topicalmechanisms to inhibit demineralization, to enhance remineralization, and to inhibitbacteria associated with tooth decay (Featherstone, 2000). Fluoride has an affinity for calcified tissues. Studies of exposure and bone mineral density, fractures andosteoporosis would benefit from a national fluoride database coupled with an intakeassessment tool (Phipps, 1995; Phipps
et al.,
2000). Therefore, a database for fluorideis needed for epidemiologists and health researchers to estimate the intakes and toinvestigate the relationships between intakes and human health.The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture (USDA) coordinated the development of this USDA National FluorideDatabase of Selected Beverages and Foods subsequently described as the NationalFluoride Database--a critical element of the comprehensive multi-center NationalFluoride Database and Intake Study (NFDIAS). The National Fluoride Database will beincorporated into a computer-based fluoride assessment tool being developed by theUniversity of Minnesota, Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC), as a module of theNutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software.The National Fluoride Database is a comprehensive, nationally representative databaseof the fluoride concentration in foods and beverages consumed in the United States. Itcontains fluoride values for beverages, water, and foods that are major fluoridecontributors. Water and water-based beverages are the chief source of dietary fluorideintake (Singer and Ophaug, 1984). Conventional estimates are that about 75% of dietary fluoride comes from water and water-based beverages. According to the 1992Fluoridation Census (CDC, 1993), about 63% of the population on U.S. public water systems are receiving water that is fluoridated naturally or by adding fluoride. Drinkingwater fluoride distributions may vary widely over geographical and geo-politicalboundaries (CDC, 1993). Variations occur with soil composition and with local politicaldecisions to fluoridate water. The use of wells of varying depths, commercial water products, home water purifiers, and filtration systems also increase variability of fluoridein drinking water and complicate estimates of intake (Brown and Aaron, 1991; Robinson
et al.
1991; Van Winkle
et al.
, 1995). These variations in fluoride in commercial foodsand beverages have been addressed in this National Fluoride Database.

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