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Cornyn's Burmese Grammar Translated by Dr Ko Lay

Cornyn's Burmese Grammar Translated by Dr Ko Lay

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Published by: Dr Ko Lay on Sep 10, 2010
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11/15/2012

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1
jrefrmo'´gaumufaMumif;
0DvD,Haumfeif
ed'gef;

þavhvmcsufonf a'ocHwpfOD;wnf;\ ajympum;udk avhvmxm;jcif; jzpf onf/ ,if; a'ocHrSm armifa&T0dkif;qdkol jzpfonf/ armifa&T0dkif;onf atmufjrefrmjynf &efukefrS ajrmufbuf rdkifwpf&mcefY a0;aom awmf0d&Gmom; jzpfonf/ rpöwma&T0dkif;udk 1902 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv 15 &ufaeY (aumZmouú&mZf wpfaxmifhESpf&m ajcmufq,fh ig;ckESpf 0gacgifvqef; q,fhwpf&uf)wGif zGm;jrifonf/ ¤if;onf touf 7 ESpfrS 14 ESpftxd &Gmbkef;BuD;ausmif;wGif 7 ESpf ynmqnf;yl;cJh onf/ touf 18 ESpfwGif &GmrS &efukefodkY xGufvmcJhonf/ 1912 ckESpfwGif oabFmwGif rD;xdk; tvkyform;tjzpf vkyfudkifcJhonf/ tESpf 20 vHk;vHk; oabFmom;tjzpf vkyfudkifcJhonfrSm 1940 jynfhESpf wGif tar&duef EdkifiHodkY a&mufcsdeftxdyif jzpfonf/ 1943 ckESpf ZGefvrS ,cktcsdef 1944 xd olonf a,;vf(Yale) wuúodkvf&Sd ppfwyfOD;pm;ay; avhusifhcef;tpDtpOf

(Army Specilized Training Prgramm)wGif jrefrmpmenf;jytjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif
vsuf &Sdonf/

þavhvmcsufwGif aeYpOfoHk;pum;udk avhvm&jcif;taMumif;rSm rpöwma&T0dkif; \ aeYpOfoHk;pum;ESifh olodxm;aom pmaypum;rsm;tMum; odomaom xl;jcm;csuf rsm;udk pl;prf; vdkrIyif jzpfonf/ þvkyfief;pOfwGif tajctae 2 ck uGJjym;vsuf &Sd onf/ ,if;wdkYrSm pmaypum;onf aeYpOfoHk;pum;ESifh a,bk,stm;jzifh odompGm uGJjym; aejcif; ppfom;rsm;\ vdktyfcsufrSm aeYpOfoHk;pum;rsm;udkom vdktyfjcif;wdkY jzpfonf/ þavhvmcsufwGif yg0ifaom jy,k*f tm;vHk;eD;yg;onf pmoifcef;rwGif jyifqifxm; aom tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh? q&mESifh oifwef;om;wdkY tjyeftvSef ajymqdkMuaom tajymtqdkrsm;rS pkpnf;xm;jcif; jzpfonf/

rpöwma&T0dkif;onf xufjrufaom tar;cHyk*¾dKvfwpfOD; jzpfonf/ olY t*Fvdyfpum;rSm tuefYtowf &Sdonf/ ,if;odkYjzpf&jcif;rSmvnf; olonf t*Fvdyf pum;udkyifjzpfap? jrefrmpum;udkyifjzpfap pum;udky&d,m,fqifí zGJUzGJUEGJUEGJU rajym

2

wwfjcif;aMumifhyif jzpfonf/ jrefrmpum;&dS a0g[m&rsm;\teufudk zGifhqdkay;&m wGif ol\&Sif;jycsufonf uGJuGJjym;jym; &Sdum &Sif;vif;ayonf/ ol\onf;cHay;rI? yl;aygif; yg0ifrIum; tvGefrsm;ayonf/ wdkif;wmíyif r&Ekdifyg/

a'gufwm &mAiftDtdktmrufa';Apf*sLeD,mESihf twlwuG yl;wGJí 1972 ckESpf wGif ygarmu©vD,dkewfAvGef;zD;\ taxGaxGñTefMum;rIatmufü xrf;aqmifpOfu yxr OD;qHk; jrefrmpum;ESifh ywfoufí aqmif&Guf&jcif; jzpfonf/ xdktvkyfudk oifMum; oif,lrI tar&duefaumifpD\ vufatmufwGif vkyf&jcif; jzpfonf/ acwfrD ta&SUwdkif; bmompum;rsm;ESifh ,Ofaus;rIqdkif&m trsdK;om;ausmif;u ay;tyfaom okawoe taxmuftyHhudk xdkaumifpDrS pmapmif&&SdcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ a'gufwm rufa';Apfonf usef;rma&;aMumifh 1943 ckESpfaEGOD;wGif þpDrHudef;rS tem;,lcJh&onf/ xdktcsdef avmufrSmyif uREfkyfwdkYonf jrefrmvlrsKd;oHk;OD;ESifh awGUqHkcJh&onf/ ¤if;wdkYrSm tjrifhNrdKUrS OD;zl;? armfvNrdKifNrdKUrS OD;zdk;oHktvmrGef (em&Dtenf;i,frQ awGUqkH)ESifh rdk;ukwfNrdKUrS OD;zl;wdkY jzpfonf/ jrefrmpum;twGuf oH&if;jyeftoHvS,fjcif;udk a'gufwmrufa';Apf aqmif&GufcJhonf/ uREfkyfonf a'gufwmrufa';Apf\ cGifhjyKcsufjzifh ol\ &v'frsm;udk þpmwrf;twGuf oHk;cGifh&onfhtwGuf ¤if;tm; aus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf/ odkY&mwGif olY taejzifh uREfkyf\ avhvmwifjycsufrsm;twGufrl wpfpHkwpf&m wm0ef,lp&m taMumif; r&Sday/ qdkvdkonfrSm trSm;t,Gif; ygygu uREfkyf\wm0efom jzpfonf/

0guszGJUyHktwGuf ueOD;avhvmrIrsm; jyKNyD; twefMumaomtcg 1936 ckESpfu &efukefwGif xkwfa0cJhaomStewart An Introduction to Colloquial Burmese pmtkyf rdwåLwpfapmif udk t*FvefrS &&SdcJhjcif;onf uREfkyftwGuf tvGefuHaumif;jcif; jzpfonf/

uREfkyfudk,fwdkif
avhvmppfaq;csufrsm;udk
Steward

\pmtkyfu twnfjyKay;EkdifcJhonf/ jrefrmbmompum;wGif pum;vHk;trsKd;tpm; 2 ckom &Sdonf qdkaom uREfkyfwdkY\ oabmwlnDrIaemufü avhvmrI 2 ck\ pl;prf;rIonf ykHrSeftm;jzifh tenf;i,fom &Sdonf[laom oabmudk azmfjyaeayvdrfhrnf/

bmompum;udk xdk;azmufjrifEdkifaom tcsKdUtultnDrsm;udk 1910 jynfhESpfwGif
vef'efNrdKUü xkwfa0aom Grant Brown\ Half the Battle in Burmese pmtkyfu
3

&&SdcJhonf/ þpmtkyfi,fonf &Sif;vif;NyD; pGJrufzG,faumif;onf/ odkY&mwGif uREkfyf\ 0guszGJYykH avhvmrItwGuf jyóemudk wpfpHkwpf&m ajz&Sif;Ekdif&efudkrlum; r&nf&G,fyg/ (½IPP - 38 - 40)

1925 ckESpfwGif vef'efü xkwfa0aom trf;pxa&mif;ESifh wif(OD;azarmifwif)wdkY \A Burmese Phonetic Reader wGif jrefrmpum;\ o'´aA'oabmudk tao;pdwf &Sif;vif;xm;csufrsm; yg0ifonf/ xkdpmtkyfwGif 0guszGJUyHkudk avhvmxm;jcif; r&Sday/ xdkYtwl yg0ifaom jy,k*fpum;rsm;rSmvnf; xdktcsdefatmufjrefrmjynf&Sd ynmwwf vlwef;pm;rsm; ajymqdkMuaom yHkrSefpum;rsm;omjzpfonf/ (0.1)

1933 ckESpfwGif &efukefüxkwfa0aom
H.O
Reynolds
\]]aeYpOfoHk;
jrefrmajympum; \ 0guszGJUykH rSwfqpftcsKdU}} [laom(Some Notes on Colloquial
Burmese
Syntax)
pmtkyf
onf
jrefrmpum;ESifh

wlnDrIjyKxm;aom t*Fvdyfbmompum;udk tajccHí avhvmxm; onf/ pma&;ol\ed'gef;wGif(p.i) wGif ajymxm;csufrSm ]]þrSwfqpfrsm;onf jrefrmpum;&dS jynfhpHkaom 0guszGJUyHkjzpfatmif vkyfaqmifxm;jcif; r&Sdyg/ bmompum;\ o'´gESifh zGJUpnf; wnfaqmufyHkudk azmfjyxm;onfh

pHrDzwfpmtkyfrsm;
(oifMum;a&;
pmtkyfrsm;)
ae&mwGif
tpm;xdk;&efvnf; r[kwfyg}}[lívnf;aumif;?
(p.ii)wGifvnf; ]]azmfjyxm;aom
a0g[m& tac:ta0grsm;onfvnf; tvGefwdusaocsmonf[k rqdkomyg/ a&SUaemuf
rnDñGwfrI rsm;udkvnf; awGU&ygvdrfhrnf/ Oyrmadverb, proposition, conjunction, and
particle [laom toHk;rsKd

;rsm; jzpfonf}} [kvnf;aumif; azmfjyxm;onf/ odkYjzpf&m þpmtkyfonf jrefrm pum;yHkpHrsm;udk t*Fvdyfbmompum; trsKd;tpm;rsm;ESifh qDavsmfvdkufzufatmif BudK;pm; tm;xkwfwm rnfrQomjzpf onf[k qdkEdkifonf/

1930 jynfhESpfwGif &efukefü xkwfa0aom awmfpdefcdk\ jrefrmbmompum; tajccH vufpGJpmtkyf"Elementary Handbook of the Burmese Language"onf jrefrmpum;&Sd pum;pkrsm;udk pepfwus pkpnf;xm;aom pmtkyfwpftkyf jzpfonf/ pmaypum;udk tajccH í 0guszGJUyHkudk azmfjy&ef tm;xkwfxm;onf/ ]]a0g[m&avhvmrI ½Iaxmifhu MunfhvQif jrefrmpum; avhvmrIonf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;onf}}[k

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