Blast Fragmentation AppraisalMeans to Improve Cost-Effectiveness in MinesAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, B.Tech(Hons.) in Mining Engineering,E.mail: email@example.com,Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting.wordpress.com/ 3* Secondary radial fractures formed at the surface, propagating inward, due to enhancedtangential stress accompanying free surface displacement;* Extension of the initial radial fractures by reflected radial tensile strain at obliqueangles to the surface;* Joining of inward propagating radial fractures with initially created outward radialfractures;* Tangential fractures formed at the surface, propagating parallel to the free surface;* Tensile separation and shear of rock at places of weakness in the rock mass;* Separation of the rock due to reflected radial tensile strain;* Fracture and acceleration of fragments by strain energy release;* Further fracture and acceleration of broken rock by late expanding gases; and* Pre- existing discontinuities in the rock mass.Most of the rock breakage in a blast occurs at a free face as a result of spalling, whichoccurs when a compressive wave is reflected at a free boundary. The slabs, which arespalled from the rock edge, are formed in a succession of increasing thickness, where thenumber of slabs depends on the amplitude and duration of the stress wave.The shock wave generated by the blast travels to the free surface from which it reflects. If the tensile strength is low, compared to the amplitude of the tensile portion of the wave,the rock face will spall. The spalled rock then travel away from the remaining rock with acertain velocity. This is obviously a contribution to the overall ‘heave’ of burden rock.
3. Extent of blast damage zone -
The prediction and observation of the nature and extentof the damage produced in the surrounding rock when an explosive charge detonates in aborehole is of major practical significance for engineered rock excavation. The radius of the damage zone formed when a cylindrical charge detonates in a rock mass is one of themost important parameters required in the development of a scientifically based methodfor designing blast patterns. The process taking place in the rock surrounding a charge isso complex that an exact mathematical description is presently impossible. The damagemechanisms change as the distance from the explosion increases.
4. Factors of Blast Design -
Preliminary blast design parameters are based on rock mass-explosive-geometry combinations, which are later adjusted on the basis of field feedback using that design. The primary requisites for any blasting round are that it ensuresoptimum results for existing operating conditions, possesses adequate flexibility, and isrelatively simple to employ. It is important that the relative arrangement of blast-holeswithin a round be properly balanced to take advantage of the energy released by theexplosives and the specific properties of the materials being blasted. There are alsoenvironmental and operational factors peculiar to each mine that will limit the choice of blasting patterns. The design of any blasting plan depends on the two types of variables;uncontrollable variables or factors such as geology, rock characteristics, regulations orspecifications as well as the distance to the nearest structures, and controllable variablesor factors. The blast design must provide adequate fragmentation, to ensure that loading,haulage, and subsequent disposal or processing is accomplished at the lowest cost.